Monthly Archives: April 2014

top 4 responses to Global Youth survey

Global Youth SpeakOut Survey Results

*Supplemental information

*Photos of global youth and their homes:

*Over 55 video interviews with global youth:

*The author discusses photos illustrating how global youth will impact the future

*Travel descriptions:

*Literacy project in NW Pakistan:


*Eight years of emails with a Chinese SpeakOut young man:



Youth SpeakOut Questionnaire: The Questions, Answers and Respondents

Greetings from California. I’m writing a book that gives you and other young people around the world an opportunity to say what’s on your mind. This is your chance to be heard. Many of you have wonderful suggestions for how to make our world a better to live in, so I’m asking people age 19 and under to respond to 12 questions. I’ll compare your answers by age, gender, and location.

See global youth SpeakOut on Facebook for the questions and photos of schools and students I’ve visited on three continents. Please also forward to kids and their teachers so they can be part of the global youthbook.

Thanks, Gayle Kimball, Ph.D.


  1. If you could ask a question of the wisest person in the world,

what would you ask her or him about life?

  1. What bothers you in your daily life? What practice best helps you stay calm?
  2. If there was one thing you could change about adults, what

would it be?

  1. What would you like to change about yourself?
  2. What do you like to do for fun?
  3. When have you felt most loved by someone else?
  4. Why do you think you’re here on earth; what’s your purpose?
  5. On a scale of 1 to 100, how highly would you grade your

school? Why?

  1. What work would you like to do when you’re an adult?
  2. If you were the leader of your country, what changes would you make?
  3. How is your generation different from your parents’ age group?
  4. Imagine you get to write on a T-shirt going on a trip around the world. What would you want your T-mail to say to people?

What questions are missing that you’d like to answer? Your email. . . . . . .

What first name would you like used in the book to quote you?

How old are you?


Girl or boy?

What city and country do you live in?

Gracias! Merci! Danke! Arrigato! Chi chi!


         Top Four Youth Responses to 12 Global Youth SpeakOut Questions

4149 responses; 57% girls, 43% boys; 13% young (kids 12 and younger) and 87% teens. Percentages are small because of many answers. The survey frequencies are available on the book website (


1: What question would you ask of a wise person?

Meaning of life 22%

About the wise person 21%

Personal success 18.5%

Science and social science 11%

Death 6%


Girls                                                   Boys

Meaning 22%                                   Meaning 22%

About wise person 21%                 About wise person 21%

Success 18.5%                               Success 20%

Science & social science 11%     Science & social science 8%


Kids                                                    Teens

Meaning 26%                                   Meaning of life 24%

Success, happiness 24%             Success, happiness 23%

About wise person 20%                 About wise person 21%

Science, social science 15%        Science, social science 18%


The regions most likely to ask about the meaning of life:

NA (32%), W. Eur (30.5%), and India (23%), followed by 22% in C. Asia, MENA, and E. Asia

Personal success: E Asia (22%), SSA (21%), W Eur (20%).

Science: L Amer (17%), SSA (12%)


  1. What bothers you frequently?

School 19%

Personal issues 19% (traits, worry, stress)

Human nature 10.5%

Friends 10%

Social issues 9% (poverty, violence, inequality)


Girls                                                               Boys

School 19%                                                  School 19.5%

Social issues 11.5%                                              Social issues 14%

Human nature 10.5%                                 Human nature 14%

Friends 10%                                                 Friends 8%

Family 9%                                                     Family 7%


Social issues include poverty, inequality, violence, etc.


Kids                                                                Teens

Social issues 22%                                      Social issues 28%

School 20%                                                  School 19%

Friends 8%                                                   Friends 10%



School: Russia (37%), N Amer (24%), E Asia (23%)

Human nature: S Amer (37%), India (20%), SSA (17%)

Friends: Russia, India, C Asia each 10%

Worry about future: E Asia (10%)


  1. What’s one thing you’d change about adults?

Too bossy, strict, protective, should give us more freedom 15%

Arrogance 12%

Bad habits and behaviors like smoking and drinking 11%

Should be more understanding, remember their own childhoods 10.5%


Only 6% said they wouldn’t change anything.


Girls                                                   Boys

Bad behaviors 32%                                    Bad behaviors 24%

Too bossy 15%                                Too bossy 17%

More understanding 15%              More understanding 9%

Arrogance 12%                                Arrogance 7%


Bad behaviors includes bad habits, too serious, be kinder, too materialistic, unethical, be better parents.

Girls are more critical of adult bad behavior and want them to be more understanding.


Kids                                                    Teens

Bad behaviors 22%                                    Bad behaviors 21%

Bossy 22%                                       Bossy 15%

Arrogance 13%                                Arrogance 13%

Be understanding 13%                  Be understanding 13%

Kids are more likely to think of adults as bossy.



Too bossy: L Amer (26%), MENA (25%), C Asia (15%), SSA (12%

More understanding: MENA (17%), SSA (13%), C Asia (10.5%)

Arrogance: NA (16%), MENA (13.5%), Russia (12.5%), India (12%)

Negative traits: India (15%), NA (16%)

Bad behaviors: India (13%)

Nothing: W Eur (13%)


  1. What’s one thing you’d change about yourself?

Personal traits i.e., temper, lazy, be less shy and more self-esteem 49%

Appearance such as be taller or better looking 14%

Work harder and do better at school 12%

Nothing 10.5%


Girls                                                               Boys

Personal traits 48%                                                Personal traits 52.5%

Appearance 13%                                         Appearance 14%

School performance 12%                          School performance 10%

Nothing 10.5%                                             Nothing 7%


Boys are more likely to mention wanting self-esteem (5% vs. 3%) and less likely to say they wouldn’t change anything.


Kids                                                                Teens

Personal traits 49%                                                Personal traits 48%

Appearance 12%                                         Appearance 13%

Work harder at school 12%                       Work harder 11.5%

Nothing 10%                                                            Nothing 10.5%



Nothing: W Eur (32%), L Amer (20%), MENA (13%), India (12%)

Appearance: MENA (22%), L Amer (21%), SSA (16.5%), C Asia (13%), USSR     (11.5%)

Work harder in school: USSR (17.5%), E Asia and NA (15%), C Asia (12%)


  1. What do you like to do for fun?

Sports and other physical activities like bike riding and walking 21%

Hanging out with friends 18%

Arts, music, dancing, drama 14%

Electronic games, Internet, video, etc. 9%


Girls                                                               Boys

Sports 21%                                                   Friends 19%

Friends 18%                                                 Music, dance 17%

Music, dance, sing 14%                             Sports 14%

Internet, e games 9%                                 Read 8%

Internet, e-games 5%


Girls are more likely to mention sports, which includes bike riding and walking. Having fun with family was only mentioned by 5% of boys and 3% of girls.


Kids                                                    Teens

Friends 19%                                     Sports 21%

Sports 18%                                       Friends 18%

Music 16%                                        Music/dance 14%

Electronic 8%                                   Electronic 9%

Kids are more likely to mention movies and sports.



Hang out with friends: L Amer (41%), W Eur (31%), SSA (28%), India (24.5%), E Asia (22%), NA (19%), C Asia (18%), MENA (15%)

Sports: MENA (28%), USSR and C Asia (21%), L Amer (17%), India (13%)

Music: USSR (22%), NA (21%), C Asia (14%), MENA and W Eur (11%), India (10%)

Electronic games, Internet: SSA and India (12%), NA (11%), MENA (10%)


  1. When have you felt most loved?

By family: parents, activities with family, birthdays and holidays, siblings 28.5%

In difficult times, like illness 20%

Success at school or in sports 8%

Feel understood 6.5%


(No love is reported by 59 respondents)


Girls                                                   Boys

Family 29%                                       Family 29%

Difficult times 24.5%                       Difficulty 16%

Successes 8%                                Friends 8%

Friends 6.5%                                                Successes 4%



Girls are more likely to feel loved for their successes and when helped in difficult times like illness. Siblings were a main source of love for only 1% of both genders. Only 2% of boys and 3% of girls never felt loved. 7% of boys and 6% of girls always feel loved.


Kids                                                    Teens

Family 22%                                       Family 25%

Difficult times 22%                          Difficult times 21.5%

My successes 12.5%                     Friends 8%

Friends 7%                                       My successes 4%

Always 5%                                        Always 6%

Kids’ successes are more likely to make them feel loved.



Always: W Eur (24%), SSA (13%)

Difficult times: USSR (36%), India (21%), C Asia (19%), NA (13%), SSA (12%), MENA (11%)

Family: L Amer (15.5%)

Birthday and holidays: NA (16%), USSR and MENA (14%), USSR (10%)

Friends: India (12%)

Mother: L Amer (14%), India and NA (10%)

My birth: W Eur (12%)


  1. My life purpose

Do good works, make the world better 30%

Personal goals 21% (happiness, goals, grow, enjoy, love)

Worship God (Most often mentioned by Muslim youth) 15%

Help family or country 15%

Don’t know, no purpose 10%


Girls                                                   Boys

Good works 41.5%                         Good works 38%

Personal goals 19%                      Personal goals 19%

Help family or country 15%                        Help family or country 15%

Worship God 15%                           Worship God 16%

Don’t know 10%                              Don’t know 8%


Kids                                                    Teens

Do good 33 %                                  Do good 29%

Personal goals 18%                                   Personal goals 19%

Help family or country 16%                        Help family or country 16%

Worship God 15%                           Worship God 15%



Good works: E Asia (44%), NA (38%), India (36%), W Eur (34%), C Asia (30%), SSA (21%), USSR (19%), L Amer (16%)

Worship God: India (36%), SSA (30%), C Asia (15%), MENA and W. Eur (10%)

Don’t know: L Amer (27%), MENA (13%), W Eur (11%)

Help family: USSR (19%), NA (12%)

Be happy: L Amer (12%)

Do my best: L Amer (12%), W Eur (11%)


  1. Rate School 804 girls, 545 boys. 1265 teens, 84 kids.

91-100 25%

81-90 20%

71-80 19%

41-50 11%


Girls                           Boys              Kids                Teens

91-100           25%                            25%                23%                25%

81-90                         20%                            18%                23%                20%

71-80                         19%                            20%                17%                19%

41-50             11%                            13%                6%                 11%



91-100: W Eur and USSR (34%), SSA (31%), C Asia (25%), NA (24%), India and C Asia (20%), MENA (16%)

81-90: USSR (23%), E Asia and India (21%), MENA (20%), W Eur (15%), L Amer (12%)

71-80: MENA (22%), E Asia and W Eur (21%), C Asia (19%), India (18%), USSR (16.5%)

61-70: L Amer (18.5%), India (13%)

51-60: India (12%), MENA (10%)

41-50: L Amer (22%), MENA (13%), C Asia (11%), W Eur (10%)


  1. Reason for the School Rating

Good teachers 18%

The bad physical environment—bad: lack of supplies, stinky bathroom, bad food, school too small, safely issues 16%

Good academics 12%

Good physical environment 8%


Girls                                                   Boys

Good teachers 18%                                    Bad environment 22%

Bad environment 20%                    Good teachers 15%

Good academics 12%                   Good academics 14%

Good environment 8%                   Good environment 7.5%


Kids                                                    Teens

Good teachers 18%                                    Good teachers 18%

Bad environment 17%                    Bad environment 16%

Good academics 11%                   Good academics 8%

Bad teachers 7%                             Bad teachers 7%



Good teachers: W Eur (28%), India (25%), E Asia (23%), L Amer (22%), C Asia and SSA (18%), USSR (15%)

Bad teachers: L Amer (29%), SSA (12%)

Good academics: India (21%), E Asia (19%), SSA (14.5%), USSR (13.5%), C Asia (12%), NA (10%)

Bad academics: SSA (18%), W Eur (14%)

Good students: W Eur (14%)

Good activities: L Amer (13%)

Good environment: E Asia (13%)

Bad environment: L Amer (12%), SSA (11%), W Eur (10%)

Good environment: E Asia (13%)


  1. Career Goal

Medical professional 14%

Business 10%

Teacher 10%

Do good 8%

Social work, counseling 7%


(Be rich 1.5% and less than 1% want to be famous.)


Girls                                                   Boys

Medical 14%                                     Medical 14%

Business 11%                                 Teacher 12%

Teacher 10%                                                Do good 9%

Social work 7%                                Social work 8%

Do good 6%                                     Business 8%


Kids                                                    Teens

Medical 13%                                     Medical 15%

Business 10.5%                              Business 10%

Teacher 10%                                                Teacher 10%

Do good 9%                                     Do good 8%



Do good: E Asia (23%), India (11%), Craft, blue collar: L Amer (24%), MENA (12%)

Medical: MENA (20%), India (17%), NA (16%), SSA (13%), E Asia (11%), W Eur (10%)

Teacher: USSR (19%), W Eur (13%)

Business: NA (14.5%), SSA (14%), W Eur (11%), E and C Asia (10%


  1. Change About Government

Youth issues such as better education, recreation facilities, listen to youth, children’s rights 21%

Develop the economy, such as lower taxes and build the infrastructure including roads, power, and housing 17.5%

Help the poor 12%

Corruption 11%

Environment 9%

Peace 8%


Girls                                                               Boys

Youth issues 21%                                       Youth issues 22%

Develop economy & infrastructure 16%   Poverty 13%

Poverty 12%                                                  Economy 10.5%

Corruption 11%                                           Corruption 10%



Kids                                                                  Teens

Youth issues 21%                                         Youth issues 21%

Economy 17%                                                Economy 18%

Poverty 13%                                                    Poverty 12%

Corruption 12%                                                       Corruption 11%



Corruption: USSR (28%), C Asia (20%), India (19%), E Asia (14%), NA and C Asia (11%)

Youth issues: NA (23%), L Amer (16%), SSA (11%)

Improve economy: W Europe (19%), USSR and C Asia (12%)

Children’s rights: W Eur (16.5%), L Amer (11%)

Peace: MENA (15%), India (11.5%)

Poverty: USSR (16%), SSA and E and C Asia (12%), NA (11.5%), India and W Europe (10%)

Infrastructure: India (13%)

Criminal issues: SSA (10%)


  1. How do you cope with stress?

Music 15%

Avoid, be alone, sleep 14.5%

Positive thinking, logic, meditate 14%

Religion 7%

Read 6%


Girls                                                   Boys

Music 15.5%                                     Music 19%

Avoid, be alone, sleep 14%           Avoid, alone 14%

Positive thinking, etc. 14%             Positive thinking, etc. 12%

Religion 7%                                      Religion 8%




Kids                                                    Teens

Music 17%                                        Music 15%

Positive thinking 14%                     Positive thinking 14%

Avoid 13%                                         Avoid 14%

Religion 7%                                      Religion 7%



Music: USSR (23%), L Amer (22%), SSA and NA (20%), India and C Asia (15%), E Asia (10%)

God: India (17%)

Sleep: USSR (14.5%)

Meditate: E Asia (13%), L Amer (10%)

Avoid: L Amer and W Eur (12%)

Friends: L Amer (12%)

Sports: L Amer (12%)

Positive thinking: SSA (10%)

Keep busy: W Eur (10%)


Comparison of North America and Other Regions

Because North Americans (NA) gave many (1740) responses, compared to 2408 from other regions, which I’ll call World, we will look at differences between the two groups in their answers to the 12 questions. The exact percentages are on the book website.[i]

Question 1: World is more than twice as likely to ask about death and the afterlife and their personal success.

2) World is more bothered by school and NA is more bothered by their friends and more stressed.

3) NA wants adults to be more understanding and less strict and know-it-all. World faults adults for bad behavior and habits.

4) World is more likely to say they should work harder at school and NA is more focused on changing their appearance than World.

5) NA is more likely to mention playing sports for fun and World is more likely to mention hanging out with friends. Watching TV was only mentioned by a few young people; they are more likely to mention reading and writing.

6) NA is more likely to feel loved by their families and girl or boyfriend. World feels more loved in difficult times than NA. Both regions are more likely to mention feeling loved by their mothers than their fathers.

7) Both regions are more likely to mention altruistic reasons for living (NA, 42%, W. 31%) than personal goals for success or happiness (NA, 26.5%, W 23%). More don’t know their purpose in NA but NA is also slightly likely to mention worshipping God.

8) World is more likely to rank their schools as excellent, but otherwise the regions were similar in their ranking. 9) The criteria for how they ranked their schools are also similar, but with World more likely to mention good academics and a bad environment, and NA more likely to criticize too many school rules.

10) The most popular career choice is medical professional, more so in NA. World is more likely to say they want to help in their future careers (16% vs. 4%). Less than one percent of all the respondents said they wanted to be rich or a housewife.

11) NA is more concerned about the economy and taxes, peace and the environment, while World is more concerned about youth issues like education, poverty, and corruption.

12) NA is more likely to cope with stress by changing attitude, while World is more likely than NA to turn to spirituality and entertainment.



Statistics Global Youth Survey (Frequencies, 4149 from 88 Countries)

FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=Sex Region Age Q1R1 Q2R1 Q3R1 Q4R1 Q5R1 Q6R1 Q7R1 Q8R2 Q9R1 Q10R1 Q11R1 Q12


For the cross tabs, 194 pages, please email gkimball at

Thanks to Steve Kellam for his skill and many hours with SPSS


Output Created 23-APR-2014 14:59:23
Input Data G:\Files\fall010\tempstorage\Gayle’s Dataset-newrev3.sav
Active Dataset DataSet1
Filter <none>
Weight <none>
Split File <none>
N of Rows in Working Data File 4149
Missing Value Handling Definition of Missing User-defined missing values are treated as missing.
Cases Used Statistics are based on all cases with valid data.
Syntax FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=Sex Region Age Q1R1 Q2R1 Q3R1 Q4R1 Q5R1 Q6R1 Q7R1 Q8R2 Q9R1 Q10R1 Q11R1 Q12/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
Resources Processor Time 00:00:00.06
Elapsed Time 00:00:00.08



[DataSet1] G:\Files\fall010\tempstorage\Gayle’s Dataset-newrev3.sav



Sex Region Age Question of a Wise Person What Bothers you Change Adults
N Valid 4149 4148 4149 2476 2533 2550
Missing 0 1 0 1673 1616 1599


Change about self For fun Felt love Purpose of living Scale for school Rate School
N Valid 2465 3928 2094 1946 2289 1401
Missing 1684 221 2055 2203 1860 2748


Career Goal Change about government Cope with stress
N Valid 1782 1968 1023
Missing 2367 2181 3126




Frequency Table



Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Male 1784 43.0 43.0 43.0
Female 2365 57.0 57.0 100.0
Total 4149 100.0 100.0



Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Sub Saharian Africa 198 4.8 4.8 4.8
Central & South America 103 2.5 2.5 7.3
Western Europe & Austrailia 133 3.2 3.2 10.5
Eastern Europe & Russia 115 2.8 2.8 13.2
East Asia 738 17.8 17.8 31.0
Indian Subcontinent 432 10.4 10.4 41.4
Middle East & North Africa 254 6.1 6.1 47.6
North America (USA and Canada) 1740 41.9 41.9 89.5
Central Asia 435 10.5 10.5 100.0
Total 4148 100.0 100.0
Missing System 1 .0
Total 4149 100.0



Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Young 522 12.6 12.6 12.6
Old 3627 87.4 87.4 100.0
Total 4149 100.0 100.0



Question of a Wise Person
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid about a wise person 509 12.3 20.6 20.6
AIDS 4 .1 .2 20.7
aliens exist? 6 .1 .2 21.0
Biology 16 .4 .6 21.6
death 160 3.9 6.5 28.1
environment 24 .6 1.0 29.0
future of society 39 .9 1.6 30.6
god 17 .4 .7 31.3
happiness 111 2.7 4.5 35.8
how to improve economy 6 .1 .2 36.0
human nature 82 2.0 3.3 39.3
meaning of life 545 13.1 22.0 61.3
politics 10 .2 .4 61.8
religion 45 1.1 1.8 63.6
science 158 3.8 6.4 70.0
social science 109 2.6 4.4 74.4
success in my life 457 11.0 18.5 92.8
war/peace 75 1.8 3.0 95.8
why adults abuse kids 2 .0 .1 95.9
why inequality or suffereing 86 2.1 3.5 99.4
Love 15 .4 .6 100.0
Total 2476 59.7 100.0
Missing System 1673 40.3
Total 4149 100.0



What Bothers you
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Abuse 10 .2 .4 .4
Adult Attitudes 103 2.5 4.1 4.5
Adult Bad Habits (e.g. drinking, drugs, smoking) 29 .7 1.1 5.6
AIDS 4 .1 .2 5.8
Appearance of Self or Others 23 .6 .9 6.7
Boredom 39 .9 1.5 8.2
Chores 24 .6 .9 9.2
Crimes 1 .0 .0 9.2
Disrepect by Adults 3 .1 .1 9.3
Enviroment (e.g. smog) 18 .4 .7 10.0
Family 58 1.4 2.3 12.3
Friends/Peers 242 5.8 9.6 21.9
Getting up early 121 2.9 4.8 26.6
Human Nature 267 6.4 10.5 37.2
Inequality/Prejudice 61 1.5 2.4 39.6
Infrastructure 18 .4 .7 40.3
Insects or Animals 27 .7 1.1 41.4
Lack of Money 67 1.6 2.6 44.0
Morality 8 .2 .3 44.3
Mother Issues 23 .6 .9 45.2
Myself 109 2.6 4.3 49.5
No Polygamy 3 .1 .1 49.7
Noise 22 .5 .9 50.5
Nothing 40 1.0 1.6 52.1
Parents 61 1.5 2.4 54.5
Personal Health Problems 30 .7 1.2 55.7
Personal Traits (e.g. Anger, emotional, personality, self esteem) 82 2.0 3.2 58.9
Pets 26 .6 1.0 60.0
Poverty (e.g. hunger, homlessness, lack of jobs, medicine, etc) 80 1.9 3.2 63.1
Racism or Sexism 6 .1 .2 63.4
Relationships 28 .7 1.1 64.5
School 491 11.8 19.4 83.9
Siblings 78 1.9 3.1 86.9
Time Pressure and Stress 144 3.5 5.7 92.6
Unethical 9 .2 .4 93.0
Violence (e.g. war, childabuse, fighting) 47 1.1 1.9 94.8
Weather 6 .1 .2 95.1
Worry about the Future 105 2.5 4.1 99.2
Father 3 .1 .1 99.3
Comparison with Other People 1 .0 .0 99.4
Lonely 5 .1 .2 99.6
Orphans 11 .3 .4 100.0
Total 2533 61.1 100.0
Missing System 1616 38.9
Total 4149 100.0



Change Adults
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Don’t Age 26 .6 1.0 1.0
Negative emotional traits 182 4.4 7.1 8.2
Annoying 39 .9 1.5 9.7
Appearance 10 .2 .4 10.1
Arrogance 300 7.2 11.8 21.8
Bad Behaviors 157 3.8 6.2 28.0
Bad Habits (e.g. smoking, drinking, etc) 131 3.2 5.1 33.1
Be Happier 25 .6 1.0 34.1
Be Kinder, not be mean 114 2.7 4.5 38.6
Be smarter and be educated 78 1.9 3.1 41.6
Better politics 39 .9 1.5 43.2
Discrimination 45 1.1 1.8 44.9
Follow Islam (e.g. in dress) 6 .1 .2 45.2
Give me more money 39 .9 1.5 46.7
Less serious, less worry (more fun), be cool more fun 110 2.7 4.3 51.0
Less Traditional 49 1.2 1.9 52.9
Limit number of kids 1 .0 .0 53.0
More energy 7 .2 .3 53.3
More explaination 14 .3 .5 53.8
More understanding (remember their youth) 268 6.5 10.5 64.3
No divorce 6 .1 .2 64.5
No violence 16 .4 .6 65.2
Follow God/Religion 11 .3 .4 65.6
Nothing 151 3.6 5.9 71.5
Parents Health 4 .1 .2 71.7
Personal Traits 36 .9 1.4 73.1
Better parents 45 1.1 1.8 74.9
Should listen 40 1.0 1.6 76.4
Should not be Selfish 14 .3 .5 77.0
Spend more time with kids 28 .7 1.1 78.1
Stressed 47 1.1 1.8 79.9
Too bossy, too strict, more freedom, too protective 388 9.4 15.2 95.1
Unethical 35 .8 1.4 96.5
Violence 7 .2 .3 96.8
Too Materialistic 40 1.0 1.6 98.4
Environment 4 .1 .2 98.5
Less Studying or School Pressure 38 .9 1.5 100.0
Total 2550 61.5 100.0
Missing System 1599 38.5
Total 4149 100.0



Change about self
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Appearance (e.g. physical, be taller, face) 324 7.8 13.1 13.1
Be happier 16 .4 .6 13.8
Be healthy and less stressed 52 1.3 2.1 15.9
Everything 20 .5 .8 16.7
Find Love 6 .1 .2 17.0
Gender 7 .2 .3 17.2
Have more money 35 .8 1.4 18.7
Less shy, more outgoing 110 2.7 4.5 23.1
More energy 12 .3 .5 23.6
Not be child 17 .4 .7 24.3
Nothing 259 6.2 10.5 34.8
Personal Traits (e.g. less angry, better athlete, personality, religion) 1182 28.5 48.0 82.8
Respectful to parents and others 24 .6 1.0 83.7
Self esteem 81 2.0 3.3 87.0
Skill 15 .4 .6 87.6
Work harder and be better at school (e.g. study) 285 6.9 11.6 99.2
Follow God/Reigion 20 .5 .8 100.0
Total 2465 59.4 100.0
Missing System 1684 40.6
Total 4149 100.0



For fun
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Acting 64 1.5 1.6 1.6
Arts & Crafts 129 3.1 3.3 4.9
Being helpful 18 .4 .5 5.4
Boy/girlfriend 16 .4 .4 5.8
Drugs, tobacco, and alcohol 17 .4 .4 6.2
Eating 52 1.3 1.3 7.5
Electric Games (Computer, Video Games, Internet , etc.) 348 8.4 8.9 16.4
Everything 3 .1 .1 16.5
Family 126 3.0 3.2 19.7
Friends 698 16.8 17.8 37.4
God 3 .1 .1 37.5
Laughing/Joking 101 2.4 2.6 40.1
Learning 19 .5 .5 40.6
Motor Vehicles 18 .4 .5 41.0
Movies 165 4.0 4.2 45.2
Music, Dancing and/or Singing 563 13.6 14.3 59.6
Other 8 .2 .2 59.8
Pet(s) 14 .3 .4 60.1
Play with Siblings 17 .4 .4 60.6
Reading and/or Writing 239 5.8 6.1 66.6
Religious Practice (e.g. prayer) 5 .1 .1 66.8
School 3 .1 .1 66.9
Shopping 80 1.9 2.0 68.9
Sleep and Relax 42 1.0 1.1 70.0
Sports 814 19.6 20.7 90.7
Trips and Outings 194 4.7 4.9 95.6
TV 97 2.3 2.5 98.1
Time Alone 3 .1 .1 98.2
Nature 19 .5 .5 98.7
Helping others 2 .0 .1 98.7
Games/Play (general) 51 1.2 1.3 100.0
Total 3928 94.7 100.0
Missing System 221 5.3
Total 4149 100.0



Felt love
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Always 119 2.9 5.7 5.7
Appreciation 34 .8 1.6 7.3
Attention 75 1.8 3.6 10.9
Be Respected 10 .2 .5 11.4
Boy/Girlfriend 83 2.0 4.0 15.3
Difficult Times (e.g. illness, troubled) 410 9.9 19.6 34.9
Dont Know 35 .8 1.7 36.6
Father 22 .5 1.1 37.6
Felt Understood 29 .7 1.4 39.0
Friends 136 3.3 6.5 45.5
Gifts 60 1.4 2.9 48.4
God 27 .7 1.3 49.7
Helping Others 53 1.3 2.5 52.2
Mother 128 3.1 6.1 58.3
My Birth 65 1.6 3.1 61.4
Birthday/Holidays 86 2.1 4.1 65.5
No Love 59 1.4 2.8 68.3
Often 2 .0 .1 68.4
Parents 188 4.5 9.0 77.4
Physical Affection (e.g. hugs) 35 .8 1.7 79.1
Play with Family 195 4.7 9.3 88.4
School and/or Sports Success 160 3.9 7.6 96.0
Siblings 18 .4 .9 96.9
Was Helped 32 .8 1.5 98.4
When Told “I Love You” 25 .6 1.2 99.6
Teacher 8 .2 .4 100.0
Total 2094 50.5 100.0
Missing System 2055 49.5
Total 4149 100.0



Purpose of living
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Be Famous 23 .6 1.2 1.2
Be Kind 3 .1 .2 1.3
Buisness Success 87 2.1 4.5 5.8
Destiny 46 1.1 2.4 8.2
Do Best, to Grow, Learn 113 2.7 5.8 14.0
Don’t Know 145 3.5 7.5 21.4
Enjoy Life 83 2.0 4.3 25.7
Good Works (e.g. be a good person, do good things, help children, make the world better, make a difference, etc.) 589 14.2 30.3 56.0
Happiness (e.g. have a colorful life, have fun with people, do what I want to do, etc) 84 2.0 4.3 60.3
Have Kids 16 .4 .8 61.1
Help Country 109 2.6 5.6 66.7
Help Parents/Family 185 4.5 9.5 76.2
Love 24 .6 1.2 77.4
No Purpose 42 1.0 2.2 79.6
Prepare for the afterlife 5 .1 .3 79.9
Protect Nature and the Earth 35 .8 1.8 81.7
Worship God/Allah 287 6.9 14.7 96.4
Achieve Goals 70 1.7 3.6 100.0
Total 1946 46.9 100.0
Missing System 2203 53.1
Total 4149 100.0



Scale for school
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 0 2 .0 .1 .1
1-10 47 1.1 2.1 2.1
11-20 33 .8 1.4 3.6
21-30 54 1.3 2.4 5.9
31-40 55 1.3 2.4 8.3
41-50 260 6.3 11.4 19.7
51-60 167 4.0 7.3 27.0
61-70 209 5.0 9.1 36.1
71-80 434 10.5 19.0 55.1
81-90 459 11.1 20.1 75.1
91-100 569 13.7 24.9 100.0
Total 2289 55.2 100.0
Missing System 1860 44.8
Total 4149 100.0



Rate School
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Academics – Good 171 4.1 12.2 12.2
Academics – Bad 63 1.5 4.5 16.7
Activities – Bad (e.g. lack of activities) 33 .8 2.4 19.1
Activities – Good (e.g. club events, sports, fesitivals) 44 1.1 3.1 22.2
Big School – Bad 4 .1 .3 22.5
Big School – Good 10 .2 .7 23.2
Boring 17 .4 1.2 24.4
Environment – Bad (e.g. old facilities, lack of supplies) 224 5.4 16.0 40.4
Environment – Good (e.g. good facilities, physical environment, gym, etc.) 115 2.8 8.2 48.6
Food – Bad 22 .5 1.6 50.2
Food – Good 13 .3 .9 51.1
Friends 41 1.0 2.9 54.0
Fun 14 .3 1.0 55.0
Home Schooled 6 .1 .4 55.5
Lack of Funding 20 .5 1.4 56.9
Like the Religion Taught 5 .1 .4 57.2
Safety Issues 24 .6 1.7 59.0
Small School – Bad 15 .4 1.1 60.0
Small School – Good 5 .1 .4 60.4
Students – Bad 89 2.1 6.4 66.7
Students – Good 56 1.3 4.0 70.7
Teachers – Bad 93 2.2 6.6 77.4
Teachers – Good 257 6.2 18.3 95.7
Too Far 1 .0 .1 95.8
Too Many Rules 47 1.1 3.4 99.1
Uniform – Bad 7 .2 .5 99.6
School Size 2 .0 .1 99.8
Food 3 .1 .2 100.0
Total 1401 33.8 100.0
Missing System 2748 66.2
Total 4149 100.0



Career Goal
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Artist 58 1.4 3.3 3.3
Be Rich 26 .6 1.5 4.7
Buisness Person 171 4.1 9.6 14.3
Computers 34 .8 1.9 16.2
Craft, Technical, Blue Collar or Clerical 115 2.8 6.5 22.7
Do Good 144 3.5 8.1 30.8
Engineer 81 2.0 4.5 35.3
Entertainer, Comedian or Newscaster 95 2.3 5.3 40.6
Famous 15 .4 .8 41.5
Financial Success 16 .4 .9 42.4
Go to a University 3 .1 .2 42.5
Government Official 81 2.0 4.5 47.1
Happy 25 .6 1.4 48.5
Housewife 2 .0 .1 48.6
Lawyer 47 1.1 2.6 51.2
Medical Professional 243 5.9 13.6 64.9
Other 13 .3 .7 65.6
Pilot 22 .5 1.2 66.8
Police 40 1.0 2.2 69.1
President 3 .1 .2 69.2
Scientist 89 2.1 5.0 74.2
Social Worker 117 2.8 6.6 80.8
Soldier 36 .9 2.0 82.8
Sports Player/Athlete 43 1.0 2.4 85.2
Spread Religion 20 .5 1.1 86.4
Teacher 177 4.3 9.9 96.3
Writer 60 1.4 3.4 99.7
Achieve Goals 4 .1 .2 99.9
Make Money 2 .0 .1 100.0
Total 1782 43.0 100.0
Missing System 2367 57.0
Total 4149 100.0



Change about government
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Arabic 1 .0 .1 .1
Ban Abortion 6 .1 .3 .4
Build Infrastructure (e.g. electricity, roads, power, housing, etc.) 109 2.6 5.5 5.9
Children’s Rights 18 .4 .9 6.8
Computers 3 .1 .2 7.0
Corruption 216 5.2 11.0 17.9
Criminal Issues (e.g. prostitution, robbery, forgive prisioners, etc.) 58 1.4 2.9 20.9
Curriculum of School 7 .2 .4 21.2
Develop Healthcare 87 2.1 4.4 25.7
Develop the Economy 237 5.7 12.0 37.7
Discrimination 18 .4 .9 38.6
Education, Recreation, Listen to Youth 395 9.5 20.1 58.7
End Social Prejudice (e.g. Tribalism, Religious Sectarian Fighting) 23 .6 1.2 59.9
Environment, Ecology 174 4.2 8.8 68.7
Equality 67 1.6 3.4 72.1
Gangs 8 .2 .4 72.5
Help the Poor, Homeless or Orphans 240 5.8 12.2 84.7
Houses 9 .2 .5 85.2
Immigration 9 .2 .5 85.6
Legalize Gay Marriage 4 .1 .2 85.8
Less Government 18 .4 .9 86.7
More Democratic 44 1.1 2.2 89.0
No War/Peace 164 4.0 8.3 97.3
Punish Criminals (e.g. prisons) 30 .7 1.5 98.8
Spread Islam/More Islamic 10 .2 .5 99.3
Security/Safety 13 .3 .7 100.0
Total 1968 47.4 100.0
Missing System 2181 52.6
Total 4149 100.0



Cope with stress
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Accept it 9 .2 .9 .9
Avoid 59 1.4 5.8 6.6
Be Alone 28 .7 2.7 9.4
Breathing 39 .9 3.8 13.2
Crying 6 .1 .6 13.8
Exercise 49 1.2 4.8 18.6
Express Anger 9 .2 .9 19.5
Family 18 .4 1.8 21.2
Food 21 .5 2.1 23.3
Friends 40 1.0 3.9 27.2
Games 29 .7 2.8 30.0
Go Outside 4 .1 .4 30.4
God/Religion 71 1.7 6.9 37.3
Humor 11 .3 1.1 38.4
Keep Busy/Hard Work 51 1.2 5.0 43.4
Meditation 47 1.1 4.6 48.0
Music 157 3.8 15.3 63.3
Nature 9 .2 .9 64.2
Parents 8 .2 .8 65.0
Planning or Logic 39 .9 3.8 68.8
Positive Thinking 54 1.3 5.3 74.1
Reading 57 1.4 5.6 79.7
Singing 5 .1 .5 80.2
Sleeping 50 1.2 4.9 85.0
Sports 37 .9 3.6 88.7
Study Alone 11 .3 1.1 89.7
Talking 55 1.3 5.4 95.1
Teacher 5 .1 .5 95.6
TV or Movies 20 .5 2.0 97.6
Being Informed 3 .1 .3 97.8
Mentor 2 .0 .2 98.0
Learning New Skills 4 .1 .4 98.4
Good Deeds 7 .2 .7 99.1
Writing/Journaling 9 .2 .9 100.0
Total 1023 24.7 100.0
Missing System 3126 75.3
Total 4149 100.0


Are women more egalitarian?

One way to look at how change will occur as women assume more leadership and agency is to look at matrilineal societies. They trace descent with the mother, live with her, and children are raised by their maternal uncles rather than their fathers. Examples from the past and those continuing in the present (the latter in bold) are listed in the endnote.[i] In some of these cultures women chose lovers as they please rather than monogamous marriage. For example, the Moso are a matrilineal people who live in China near the Tibet border.  They’re Buddhists like the Tibetans but also believe in ghosts and deities like their mountain goddess who is the mother of the Moso.

An interesting autobiography of Erce Namu, a girl who grew up in this traditional culture, explains that wealth was held communally and shared equally. Although the oldest woman was the head of the household, she shared decision-making. “In ideal terms, Moso families are democratic units where all relatives expect to be included in decision making.”[ii] Older people are deferred to whether male or female. Children address their biological father as “uncle” since maternal uncles raises their sisters’ boys. Daughters are favored over sons and only daughters have their own bedroom, called a “flower room,” where lovers may tap on her window to spend the night if the woman agrees. They say visiting keeps relations between men and women pure and joyful, without the fights between married couples. “Love is like the seasons—it comes and goes.” Harmony is highly valued, so it’s forbidden to argue or gossip. Erce Namu reported, “nobody in Moso country today can recall either murder or beating or robbery, or a truly ugly fight between neighbors or jilted lovers.” [iii] The implication is that women will bring more democracy, peace and sexual freedom.


[i] CherokeeChoctawGitksanHaidaHopiIroquoisLenape, and Navajo ofNorth America; the Minangkabau people of West SumatraIndonesia; the Nairsand the Bunts of Kerala and Karnataka in south India; the KhasiJaintia and Garoof Meghalaya in northeast India; the Mosuo of China; the Basques of Spain and France; the Akan including the Ashanti of west Africa; and the Tuaregs of West and North Africa.

[ii] Yang Erce Namu and Christine Mathieu. Leaving Mother Lake: a Girlhood at the Edge of the World. Little Brown & Company, 2004, p. 277. Google her name to see photos.

[iii] Ibid, p. 69

How Gandhi Led India’s Liberation

Gandhi is one of the heroes of the 20th century who combined political liberation and spirituality in his philosophy of non-violent satyagraha. In so doing he became the most important influence on contemporary non-violent social change. Gandhi is one of the heroes of the 20th century who combined political liberation and spirituality. His principles of soul-force and non-violent political change liberated India from British colonial rule and inspired non-violent heroes like Nelson Mandela in South Africa, Martin Luther King in the US, Aung San Suu Kyi in Burma, and the Dalai Lama in Tibet and India–more examples of individuals who changed the course of history. Gandhi’s autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth explained, “My uniform experience has convinced me that there is no other God than Truth,” called ahimsa, non-violence.

He wrote, “It is quite proper to resist and attack a system, but to resist and attack its author is tantamount to resisting and attacking oneself,” for we are all children of the same Creator. “To slight a single human being is to slight those divine powers, and thus to harm not only that being but with him the whole world.” Gandhi believed that “God could be realized only through service,” in his case to Indian liberation in South Africa and latter from the British in India. He believed in “the infinite possibilities of universal love.”

Gandhi liberated India through non-violent means–by persisting patiently and not giving up. He made every effort to be fair and to talk with his opponents. He also threatened their money flow by boycotting their goods or leading workers to strike. He is often shown spinning cotton to boycott British textiles. He led a march to the sea to get salt to protest British tax on salt, shown in the film Gandhi (1982). He developed a philosophy that motivates and inspires people to make change. Gandhi said, “You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty.” Gloria Steinem pointed out that Gandhi learned a lot from the Indian women’s movement and from British suffragettes like Emmeline Pankhurst.

In Gandhi’s autobiography, The Story of My Experiments with Truth, he explained, “My uniform experience has convinced me that there is no other God than Truth,” which he called ahimsa, non-violence. He wrote, “It is quite proper to resist and attack a system, but to resist and attack its author is tantamount to resisting and attacking oneself,” for we are all children of the same Creator.  Gandhi believed that “God could be realized only through service,” in his case for Indian liberation in South Africa and then from the British in India. He believed in “the infinite possibilities of universal love.”

Gandhi liberated India through non-violent means by patiently persisting. He made every effort to be fair and to negotiate with his opponents. He also threatened their money flow by boycotting their goods and leading workers to strike. He is often shown in photographs spinning cotton to boycott British textiles. He led a march to the sea to get salt to protest the British tax on salt, as shown in the film Gandhi (1982). He explained that an oppressor can’t rule without the tacit consent of the governed, so his task was to encourage withdrawal of consent by the Indian masses. “You must not lose faith in humanity,” he said. “Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty.” As Gandhi explained, when people gain hope and withdraw their tacit consent, political change occurs.

Youth-Led 21st Century Uprisings


21st Century Youth-Led Uprisings by Gayle Kimball


21st Century Youth-Led Uprisings

Note: *indicates the protests including an ongoing tent city in a city square. Underline indicates a country with prominent women initiators. Youth started these rebellions but were joined by masses of people of different ages and backgrounds. In some cases, youth includes people in their early 30s. See photos of uprisings.[i]



Serbia: 2000. President Slobodan Milošević was ousted by a group called Otpor (Resistance). The rebels provided a model for later uprisings, including Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Ukraine, and Egypt.


Philippines: 2001. People Power II protests led by university students ousted President Joseph Estrada who was accused of corruption.


Malaysia: July 2001-2015: The “freedom generation” led the Bersih (means clean) campaign for democracy using social media and mobile phones, building on Bersih 2.0 in 2007, and followed by Bersih 3.0 in 2012 and Bersih 4.0 in 2015. Demonstrators wearing yellow T-shirts called for an end to “money politics,” united various ethnic groups chanting, “We are the Children of Malaysia” (Kita Anak Malaysia). As usual, police used excessive force against the crowds, which attracted more supporters. In 2013, the opposition won the popular vote by advocating government transparency. Similar to other global youth protests, Malaysian activists believed in non-violence, humor, generations working together and use of social media.[ii]


Georgia: 2003. Kmara (Enough) protests against rigged elections led to the resignation of President Edward Shevardnadze in the Rose Revolution. Youth accomplished this by building on earlier organizing against the corrupt education system in 2000 and by learning from Otpor.


*Ukraine: 2004, Pora (It’s Time). Thousands of young protesters organized against rigged elections in the Orange Revolution. Young people from other former Soviet countries came to observe how to make a “Color Revolution.”


Zimbabwe: 2004. Sokwanele (enough!). Youth protesters distributed CDs and condoms with Bob Marley lyrics on them, painted graffiti, and continued campaigning against President Mugabe until the present.[iii] Their focus is on fair elections, “Campaigning non-violently for freedom and democracy in Zimbabwe.”


*Lebanon: 2005. Cedar Revolution protesters blamed Syrians for the assassination of Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14 and protested the 15,000 Syrian troops stationed in their country. Well-connected and media savvy young people organized large demonstrations resulting in the withdrawal of Syrian troops, the resignation of the government, and the first free parliamentary elections since 1972 (see photos).[iv]


Chile, 2006-2016. Starting in 2006, the Penguin Revolution mobilized hundreds of thousands of demonstrators to protest privatization of the education system, with another wave in 2011 that continued to the present.


Venezuela: 2007. The catalyst for student organizing occurred when the government shut down their favorite TV station, a voice of opposition to the government. Their demonstrations in turn shut down the city but the station wasn’t reopened. Next, students mobilized for a “no” vote against Hugo Chavez’ 44-pages of 69 constitutional amendments that would have permitted him to be president for life and enlarge his powers. They defeated his proposals.


Burma/Myanmar: 2007. In the Saffron Revolution, students and thousands of Buddhist monks and nuns organized non-violent resistance against military rule. A 24-year-old Burmese monk named Ashin Kovida started the Saffron Revolution. He saw a clandestine film Bringing Down a Dictator about Otpor’s success in Serbia. Ruling General Thein Sein gave up his military rank to become civilian president in 2011. Famous democracy advocate and Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi was released from almost 15 years of house arrest in 2010 and was elected to parliament in 2012. Some argue that her campaign was funded by the US State Department, similar to other Color Revolutions.[v]


Moldova: 2009. Natalia Morar, a 25-year-old journalist, organized a protest against rigged elections that attracted 20,000 people to storm the parliament building in the first Twitter Revolution.


Iran: 2009. The Green Movement protested rigged presidential elections but didn’t succeed in removing President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (documented in the 2012 film The Green Wave). A common slogan was, “Where is My Vote?” The regime said the uprising was instigated by the US, UK and Israel. Many of the activists and journalists are still in jail. The government monitored social media use, indicating that it is a resource for oppressors as well as rebels.


Portugal: 2010-2011. “Referred to as “A Generation in Trouble,” and a “Desperate Generation,” young people organized protests against austerity cuts, inspiring later European protests. Portugal’s public debt was equal to 90% of its GDP, leading to budget cuts in 2010. Austerity measures didn’t solve the problem so a bailout was agreed upon with more budget cuts. Youth wrote their “Manifesto of a Generation in Trouble. “In March 2011 about 300,000 protesters demonstrated on the streets in the 12 March Movement.


*United Kingdom: 2010-2011. University students organized about 50 campus occupations to protest tuition increases and other austerity measures.

In August 2011 riots started after a young black man was shot by police and protests against racism spread throughout England. Occupy London began on October 15 at St. Paul’s Cathedral to protest economic inequality, lasting until the police removed the tents in February 2012 (see video[vi]).


2011 Protests

Tunisia: In the Jasmine Revolution, President Ben Ali resigned and fled to Saudi Arabia after a fruit vender set himself on fire to protest police corruption. The first democratic elections were won by the Islamist Ennahda Party. Party heads resigned in 2013 so new elections could be held, fearful of incurring the same fate as the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt (photos online).[vii] Tunisia is the success story of the Arab Spring revolts that started in Tunisia and spread to Egypt, Yemen, Syria, etc., discussed fully in my Global Youth Uprisings.


*Egypt: The revolution in Tahrir Square began on January 25. President Hosni Mubarak resigned only 18 days later. In July 2013, after a year in office, the first freely elected president, Mohammed Morsi was ousted in a military coup backed by large demonstrations due to his attempts to abrogate power and Islamize the government with the Muslim Brotherhood. The military retained power through the election of General Sisi as president in 2014. He outlawed freedom of speech and assembly and jailed youth demonstrators, called worse than Mubarak.


*Yemen: In January demonstrations against President Ali Abdullah Saleh were led by a woman named Tawakkol Karman. Saleh resigned in November but manipulated behind the scenes. Elections were held in February 2014 but religious factions divided the country, led by Shia Houthtis rebels. They began as the “Believing Youth” in 1992 by organizing school clubs and summer camps. Saleh and the Iranians supported the Houthtis, while the Saudis entered the war against them in favor of President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi in 2015, joined by US support. Much civilian damage and loss of life resulted from Saudi bombing and civil war. Children who survived lost out on their schooling.

*Oman: January 17-April. Protesters demanded lower costs of living, salary increases, end to corruption, and more free speech. Sultan Qaboos responded by raising the minimum wage, changing cabinet positions, and with new government jobs and stipends for students at the Higher College of Technology. Separate tents for women and men were put in front of the legislature in demonstrators camped for three days in Sohar’s main square. Slogans were included in foreign languages for the media. A Facebook page was titled “March 2 Uprising for Dignity and Freedom.”

Libya:. Uprisings began on February 15 after security forces opened fire on a protest in Benghazi. Demonstrators chanted, “No God but Allah, Muammar is the enemy of Allah” and “Down, down to corruption and to the corrupt.” Muammar Qaddafi was killed in August while hiding in a drainpipe. In July 2012 elections a secular party won over the party aligned with the Muslim Brotherhood, but chaos continued with competing militias of mostly young men causing Libya to be a failed state and haven for ISIS terrorists.


Bahrain: Protests began on February 17 against the royal family’s monopoly on the economy and government. Sunni King Hamad brought in Saudi Sunni troops against the majority Shia population. Angry Shia youth protested but dissent was stifled and the government tore down the Pearl Roundabout main demonstration site. Zainab al-Khawaja and her family are leaders in the protests.


Morocco: On February 20, demonstrators took to the streets to limit some of the powers of the monarchy. What was called the February 20th movement was initiated by Amina Boughalbi, a 20-year-old journalism student, similar to Asmaa Mahfouz’ call for protest in Tahrir Square in Egypt the previous month. They used horizontal rather than hierarchical organizing and shared roles for men and women. The youth-led February 20 Movement wanted a constitutional monarchy. The king offered reforms including giving up his claims of divine rights to rule and nominating a prime minister from the largest party in parliament but not a constitutional monarchy. Moderate Islamists won the November elections. The protests opened up free speech to criticize the government.


Mauritania: Youth led the February 25 Movement to protest poverty and corruption, posting on Facebook. [viii]It followed the January 25 “Day of Anger” organized by students at the Advanced Institute for Islamic Studies and Research to protest the closure of their school.


Syria: In March youth (ages 10 to 15) wrote the slogan of the Arab Spring, “The people want the regime to fall” on a wall in Daraa in southern Syria. Fifteen of them were jailed and tortured. Protests began to demand the release of political prisoners that month. The ongoing civil war between Muslim sects and President Bashar Assad displaced about half of Syrians from their homes as Russians and Americans got involved on opposite sides in a bombing campaign.


*Spain: Beginning in May, the 15-M movement of indignados started in Madrid and swept around the country to protest the 50% youth unemployment rate and austerity measures. Protesters occupied the Puerta del Sol until June, and then spread out in neighborhood assemblies. Austerity measures continued under a conservative government, opposed by new Indignado-inspired political parties like Podemos.


*Portugal: In May, inspired by the Spanish Indignados, the “precarious generation” protested unemployment and high cost of living for 15 days, organized as 15O. They chanted “Spain! Greece! Ireland! Portugal! Our struggle is international!”


*Greece: On May 25, “The Squares,” the Direct Democracy Now! movement, was sparked by the Spanish protests. Suffering from the most severe austerity cuts, the aganaktismenoi (indignants) occupied Syntagma Square until August. General strikes brought out the largest crowds in June.


*Malaysia: 2011-2015. On July 30, inspired by the Spanish protests, Occupy Dataran was held every Saturday night in Kuala Lumpur from 8:00 PM to 6:00 AM. Like other Occupy groups, they held large assemblies communicating with hand signals and aimed to create real democracy, as stated on their Facebook page. The movement spread to other cities and continued in the following years with students in the vanguard. On New Year’s Eve, 2012, hundreds of protesters wearing Guy Fawkes masks held a “V For Freedom” protest against restriction on protest marches in the capital. In April 2012, more than 300 students set up tents in the square to call for free university education and ending the student loan program. In May 2014, activists occupied the square to protest a new Goods and Services Tax that increased the cost of living. In 2015, students in yellow shirts and some wearing the Guy Fawkes masks demonstrated for the prime minister to resign due to corruption charges.


*Israel: A September tent occupation of Tel Aviv’s ritzy Rothschild Boulevard demanded social justice. It was triggered by the high cost of housing and high taxes for the middle class. Daphni Leef, 25, was tired of high rents, so she used to Facebook to ask other young people to join her on the streets. Similar to other initiators, she was surprised by the hundreds of thousands who joined her in Tel Aviv and then in other cities across the country. The national student association joined in, along with other youth movements. They avoided the elephant in the room, the dispute between Palestinians and Israelis for land. Conservatives remained in power and property costs continued to rise.


Oman:. In the summer youth groups demanded the resignation of the prime minister, a nephew of the Emir. He was replaced in November.


*US: In September, the Occupy Wall Street protests began in the financial district of Manhattan. The call to occupy was initiated by the Canadian magazine Adbusters and Egyptian leaders came to encourage them in an international effort. Occupy sites spread to cities across the US and the world, with the most publicity given to New York City and Oakland because of police violence. The Guardian listed and mapped 746 Occupy sites around the world in 2011.[ix] The sites cluster in North America and Europe.


Italy: On October 7, the national student union called a national strike, putting up tents in a square in Bologna. They were referred to as Indignados. On October 12 student and other groups protested in front of the national bank in Rome. On October 15 they marched on the day of global Occupy demonstrations initiated by Spanish rebels. Italian students weren’t able to camp in Rome’s Piazza San Giovanni because several hundred Black Bloc demonstrators (an anarchist group known for wearing black hoodies and throwing rocks in various countries) initiated a violent riot there and students lacked effective organization.


2012 Protests

Canada: In February’s Maple Spring, in the casseroles (banging pots and pans) protest movement, Quebec students voted to walkout to protest tuition hikes. The strike lasted for 100 days (photos and video online).[x] Martine Desjardins chaired the largest student group in Quebec, the Student University Federation of Quebec from 2012 to 2013. She also served as a political commentator and columnist, and ran for provincial office in 2014 but lost.

Later in the year Idle No More was started by three indigenous women and a non-native woman to protest proposed changes in environmental protection laws. They drew from their culture doing round dances to gather support for their movement. In January 2013, six young indigenous men walked for two months and 1,600 kilometers to parliament. They called it the Journey of Nishiyuu (human beings) for equal rights for all the reserves. Others joined them along the way. The movement was replicated by other occupied indigenous people around the world, including those in Palestine, Australia, New Zealand, and the US.


Mexico: In May, Mexican students in Yo Soy 132 demonstrated against media bias in the upcoming presidential elections. They called for fair elections and spoke against corruption in the narco state and neoliberal policies. Large protests occurred in 2014 after 43 normal school students disappeared. Some accused the PRI government of involvement in their disappearance.


Hong Kong: In May, secondary students formed an activist group called Scholarism to protest the mainland’s efforts to impose patriotic education in schools. They led a sit in and a hunger strike in front of government offices, a precedent for their demonstrations in 2014.


2013 Protests

*Turkey: May 2013. The occupation of Gezi Park by environmentalists and critics of the prime minister started as a protest against Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s plan to cover the rare urban green space with commercial buildings, and expanded to protest his increasingly autocratic attempts to instill Islamic values. Gezi remained green but President Erdoğan continued with building projects that demolished other green spaces and increased authoritarian rule and attacks on Kurdish villages.


*Brazil: Youth-led protests against fare increases for public transportation in June expanded to protests against government spending on world athletic events rather than for social programs and against corruption. The fare increases were rescinded in São Paulo.


*Ukraine: 2013-2014. Protesters occupied Independence Square for three months to protest the president’s delay in aligning with the European Union. President Viktor Yanukovych fled to Russia in February 2014, leaving behind a bankrupt country. Protesters in the western part of the country were angry about his reneging on an alliance with the European Union, under Russian pressure, and government corruption. Civil war broke out in Eastern Ukraine led by pro-Russian rebels.



Bosnia: The Bosnian Spring occurred in February with demonstrators aiming to overthrow the corrupt government and to protest unemployment caused by privatization in one of Europe’s poorest and most divided countries. Violent riots took place to protest unemployment (over half of the youth were unemployed) and lasted for several months with some youth burning government buildings. Protesters went on to organize assemblies in about 24 cities led by intellectuals.[xi] Prime Minister, Nermin Niksic called youth protesters hooligans, similar to Turkey’s prime minister. Activists organized an independent trade union called Solidarity (Solidarnost) and the Movement for Social Justice to create direct democracy, but lacked large enough membership to make much change.


*Venezuela: In February, student protests at the University of the Andes in San Cristóbal spread around the country protesting police detention of students. Middle-class neighborhoods in Caracas protested the high inflation rate, shortage of basic goods like flour, and high crime rate. Opposition leaders were jailed. They wanted socialist President Nicolas Maduro to resign. The protests continued for months, with students camping in three plazas in the capital and in front of the United Nations office. The opposition aimed to remove President Nicolas Maduro from office.


*Taiwan: Students occupied the legislative building in March and April to protest a trade agreement with China. The Sunflower Revolution protesters carried banners stating, “If we don’t rise up today, we won’t be able to rise up tomorrow,” “Save democracy,” “Free Taiwan,” and “We will let the world know you suck [President Ma Ying-jeou].” Their nationalism contributed to the election of a nationalist woman president in 2016.


*Hong Kong: In June and September to December, a movement for democracy organized an unofficial referendum to give voters the right to choose their leaders without Beijing’s vetting the nominees, resulting in the largest demonstration in a decade. Occupy Central with Love and Peace was led by professors and students from various universities. Student organizations including Scholarism and The Hong Kong Federation of Students organized an overnight sit-in after the march until police removed them. They used familiar slogans such as, “power to the people” from the 1960s and “the people want….” used in the Arab Spring. A student leader explained, “Students hold the key to future” and asked, “If students don’t stand on the front line of democracy, who else can?” In September, the Umbrella Revolution used umbrellas to protect from police tear gas attacks, hence their symbol of yellow umbrellas. Police cleared out the occupations on December 15.

Thousands of protesters protested Beijing’s November 2016 ruling to prevent two pro-independence legislators from taking their seats. They revived the use of yellow umbrellas. Some frustrated with lack of results from previous protests threw bricks.


*United States: 2014-2016. Black Lives Matter protests against police violence against young black people started in Florida when George Zimmerman was acquitted of the murder of black teen Trayvon Martin. Dream Defenders occupied the Florida state government during July to protest. Protests ignited next in Ferguson, Missouri, then New York City, and Baltimore when black men died at the hands of police in 2015. The hashtag #BlackLivesMatter was popularized by a woman activist in Oakland. Other women, many of whom identified as queer, organized marches and organizations in various cities, typical of the more inclusive leadership of youth organizing.

*North Dakota, United States: Standing Rock Sioux “water protector” Native American and allies occupied camps to protest an oil pipeline in North Dakota. Indigenous Youth Council, youth runners, youth who occupied Hillary Clinton’s campaign headquarters were joined by protesters such as actor Shailene Woodley.


Youth led the gymnastics revelation of abuse by their team doctor, but the other leaders of #MeToo were’nt young.

*#MeToo movement: The phrase “MeToo” was coined by Tarana Burke in 2006 to protest sexual violence directed at women of color. The movement began on October 5, 2017 when the New York Times published a report of Harvey Weinstein’s harassment of actor Ashley Judd. Other actresses told their stories, including Alyssa Milano who tweeted on October 15, “If you’ve been sexually harassed or assaulted write ‘me too’ as a reply to this tweet,” which ignited the movement. Olympic gymnasts spoke up about abuse by team doctor Lawrence Nassar. Prominent men lost their positions including Harvey Weinstein, Kevin Spacey, Senate nominee Roy Moore, Matt Lauer, Garrison Keillor, Russell Simmons, and Senator Al Franken. TIME magazine’s December issue named the “Silence Breakers” as the Person of the Year. In January of 2018 Hollywood actresses and others formed a coalition called Times Up, including funding for legal fees for women to choose to take action against abusers. They wore black at the Golden Globes Awards to support the movement which spread globally.


*Parkland, Florida: High school students led a #NeverAgain campaign for gun control after 17 students and teachers were killed by a 19-year-old shooter on February 14. Within a week the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High students announced a national march in Washington, D.C. to be held on March 24, organized hundreds of students to meet with state legislators, raised millions of dollars on GoFundMe, designed T-shirts, organized a Facebook and other social media pages, wrote op-eds for newspapers such as the New York Times, appeared on TV news shows such as CNN, MSNBC, Fox, and Bill Maher’s’ HBO show. They worked with CNN to organize a televised town hall including their Senators, a sheriff, and a representative of the NRA. Their tactics are discussed on this site



[ii] John Postill, “A Critical History of Internet Activism and Social Protest in Malaysia, 1990-2011,” Asiascape: Digital Asia, Vol. 1-2, 2014, pp. 78-103.

DOI: 10.1163/22142312-12340006



[v] Tony Cartalucci,”Myanmar: Meet Aung San Suu Kyi’s Saffron Mobs,” New Eastern Outlook, May 3, 2015.






[xi] Chiara Milan, “New Social Movements Arise In Bosnia Herzegovina,” ROAR Magazine, December 18, 2014.

Lana Pasic, “Who is Behind Bosia’s Riots,” Al Jazeera, February 10, 2014.


Enlightenment according to a 17-year-old

Japanese Zen master by the name of Nan-in once entertained a professor who came seeking knowledge of enlightenment.  As they sat, Nan-in served the professor tea, and as the cup reached its fill, Nan-in continued to pour, until there was a small puddle on the table.  The professor expostulated, “It is overfull. No more will go in!” The Zen master replied, “Like this cup, you are full of your own opinions and speculations.  How can we discuss enlightenment unless you first empty your cup?”

   I have come to the realization that, in order for me to better understand enlightenment, I too must first empty my cup.  I must throw away my preconceptions.  As always, they serve no purpose, and act only as a limitation. Life is suffering.  This is the first of Buddha‘s Four Noble Truths.  Human nature is rife with imperfections, as is the world we live in.  We encounter fear, frustration, sadness, depression, and inevitable death.  No one’s skin is impervious; we are all subject to the empty feeling of someone looking right through us.  Of course there is also good in this world.  Namely, comfort, love and friendship, but in its entirety, life is an incomplete mess.  It will remain this way until we finally end our self-centered desire.

   The origin of suffering is attachment.  This is the second of the Four Noble Truths.  As long as we crave impermanent objects, we will continue to be blinded by their unneeded promise of fulfillment.  Unfortunately, the loss of such objects is inevitable, and upon their departure, suffering will occur.  We cling to what we now refer to as “self.”  One’s sense of separate self is an illusion; we are all intact within the universe.  “Self” is little more than a bag of skin and bones.  

   The cessation of suffering is attainable. This is the third of Four Noble Truths. Suffering can be ended by attaining a state of dispassionate tranquility.  The cause of suffering is attachment, so why not annihilate that cause?  Because it is fu—– hard!  The process of eliminating desire is a many-leveled one, as there are countless possibilities for attachment.  Consequently, few ever truly achieve nirvana.  Nirvana is freedom from angst, complexes, and ideas.  It is incomprehensible for those who have not yet achieved it.

   The Buddhist path to cessation of suffering is eight-fold: correct thought, correct speech, correct actions, correct livelihood, correct understanding, correct effort, correct mindfulness, and correct concentration. One must follow this path.  It may last many lifetimes, and it may consume one’s every waking moment, but as one continues down this path, gradually, ignorance, delusion, desire, and eventually suffering will all disappear. This is the fourth of Four Noble Truths.

   Do not liken enlightenment to a religious awakening.  It is anything but that.  It is not an answer, for there is no question. To be enlightened is to see past right and wrong, to surpass the notion of correctness entirely. It goes beyond belief.  Religion is temporary by nature, ever changing to suit its recipients. Unlike religion, enlightenment is not characterized as the pursuit of finding meaning, answers, and purpose.  It is the pursuit of rising above that. Purpose is a path worn out by humanity’s pointless striving for a definition. The need for either of those two terms, purpose or definition, is obsolete.

   Enlightenment is a possibility for everyone. Many believe that only Buddhists strive for it, but this is untrue. An example of this is Walt Whitman in the 19th century, a new poet of a country in need of a new voice. Being enlightened is to recognize that we are of the earth, not from it. It is the grasping of the concept that the highest mountains of Tibet are somehow connected to the small stream outside your window. The entire universe is intact.  How could it be otherwise?

   I, unfortunately, am still asleep, literally or not. I perceive only what’s in front of me. I judge what I don’t know; yet I remain without curiosity towards that which I judge. I exist only to survive, partake in meaningless activities that serve as nothing more than distractions. I eat, drink and sleep. I guess love too, but it means nothing. I am still searching.  It is the rise above that search that is truly significant. Josh Allerd, 17, m, California


Generational Feminist Debates

Second and Third Wave feminists in the US disagree, with the former focusing on reformist institutional change such as equal pay legislation and making abortion legal. They created Women’s Studies and the concept of global sisterhood (Robin Morgan), latter attacked as lacking acknowledgement of intersecting oppressions including ethnicity, sexual preference, and colonialism. Third Wave feminists criticized them for being humorless, man-hating, lacking in style and monopolizing power in women’s organizations. Feminism became a bad word. The Third Wave was in turn criticized for being self-absorbed fashionistas who don’t attack substantial political and social issues, for transforming liberation into freedom to wear a T-shirt saying “Bitch” or dress like Miley Cyrus and say “like” every other word. Gen X spokesperson Sheryl Sandberg (born 1969) generated thousands of “Lean In” groups around the world based on her book, including Beijing, where women encourage each other to be assertive at work. As a billionaire, she was criticized for not pushing for government support programs like affordable quality child care and parental leave to make women’s career advancement more possible The Fourth Wave builds on cyberactivism, generating petitions and blogs. “SlutWalks” and debates about “slut shaming” have generated interest from young women. What’s your thinking about these issues?

Many Journals about Women’s Studies, Youth Studies, and Global Studies

Women’s Studies Journals

Feminist Legal Studies


European Journal of Women’s Studies


Women’s Studies


Frontiers: A Journal of Women’s Studies,673226.aspx


Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies


Women’s Review of Books


Women’s Studies: An Indisciplinary Journal


Women’s Studies International Forum


Women’s Studies Quarterly


NWSA Journal


New Books on Women and Feminism

Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society


Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society




Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism


Off Our Backs


Journal of Women, Politics and Policy: A Quarterly Journal of Research and Policy Studies


Gender and Society


Feminist Review


Feminist Studies


Feminist Teacher




Feminist Formations


Blog An open feminist forum


Youth Organizations That Could Buy the Book for their Libraries

Research publications by NGOs—possible book reviewers and purchasers

The United Nations: and


The World Bank:


International Childhood and Youth Research Network (ICYRNet)


Education Development Center (EDC)


International Childhood and Youth Research Network (ICYRNet)


Australian Clearinghouse for Youth Studies


Carnegie Young People Initiative (U.K.)


CYFERNet: Children, Youth and Families Education and Research Network. (U.S.).


International youth policies. It works with the National Commission for UNESCO commissions, etc.


International Childhood and Youth Research Network (ICYRNet)
University Centers that Could Review the Book and Purchase for Library

Youth Studies Research Guide. RMIT (Australia)

Youth Studies at the School of Social Work, University of Minnesota (U.S.).

Department of Child and Youth Studies at Brock University (Canada).

Children and Youth Studies Caucus, American Studies Association, Georgetown University.

Youth Studies Certification ProgramCUNY. (U.S.)

Youth Studies NetCity University of Hong Kong.

Child and Youth Studies Institute Association of African Universities (Senegal).

Children, Youth and Family Consortium, University of Minnesota   Mainly about the US.

The Clearinghouse on International Developments in Child, Youth and Family Policies at Columbia University Focuses on developed countries’ policies.
International Sociological Association Research Committee 34. Sociology of Youth (RC34)
The Network University (TNU)
The Network University specializes in creating e-tools for education and networking in the field of development. TNU has developed courses on youth and conflict and youth and development.


Youth Studies Journals That Could Review the Book

Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies


Journal of Youth Development

Journal of Youth Studies

  •   (international)


Nordic Journal of Youth Research   Includes international articles


Social Movement Studies Journal



Global Studies Journals (for review)

Social Movement Studies Journal





Public Culture

Global Studies in Universities (textbook market)


Wilfrid Laurier University

Vancouver Island University

United States:

Arizona State University

California State University, Monterey Bay

California State University, San Marcos

Indiana University

Lehigh University

Loyola University Maryland

Michigan State University

Providence Colleges

Texas State University-San Marcos


University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana

University of Minnesota

University of Washington Bothell


National University of Singapore

  •        Hong Kong

The University of Hong Kong



Monash University

University of Technology, Sydney


University of Gothenburg [2]

University of Sussex

New Delhi