Recent Eastern European Democracy Uprisings

The  activist group Otpor’s ouster of their corrupt president in 2000, was a model for other revolutionaries in the region and beyond to Egypt, etc. Srdja Popovic (age 25) led the Serbian group that evolved into CANVAS and continues to advise international changemakers. Otpor learned revolutionary tactics from American Gene Sharp’s 1973 book The Politics of Nonviolent Action and 1993 book From Dictatorship to Democracy about non-violent resistance (available online).[i] Popovic was also inspired by Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Lech Walesa in Poland, and the Chilean movement against dictator Pinoche demonstrating global idea exchanges in action.[ii]

Popovic was a 25-year-old leader in the Otpor student movement that drove dictator Slobodan Milosevic from power in 2000. A postmodern revolution, it worked to create a lifestyle, identity and brand, a feeling of being heroic and cool. Young men competed to see who could get arrested most often, to become celebrity stars. They used street theater and stunts that made the government look silly to generate media coverage. Young Serbians organized with images and slogans on stickers and T-shirts, banging pans from their apartments during the state radio news (a tactic used in Argentina and later in other youth-led demonstrations in Spain, Canada, Turkey, etc.). They placed women, grandmothers and veterans in front of demonstrators so police would feel less threatened. Popovic explained the essence of Sharp’s teaching was that, “The pillars of the regime support it out of fear. The moment the fear factor disappears and people are fearless with the police and hugging the military, you have lost your main pillars” or resources.

A revelation from WikiLeak’s “Global Intelligence Files” was that Popovic and his wife worked for Stratfor since 2007, a Texas global intelligence-gathering firm whose clients are large corporations and the US government.[iii] For example, Popovic went to Texas to present Stratfor with a plan for how to unseat Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez in 2010 and forwarded emails he received from activists around the world. CANVAS began to train opposition leaders in Venezuela in 2005: President Hugo Chavez called them the Coup D’Etat group. He probably was assisted by the CIA in his work to oust Milosevic in Serbia, Otpor and other opposition groups were funded by US organizations including USAID, Freedom House, and the International Republican Institute. Popovic said that all his briefing papers are public and that CANVAS doesn’t take money from governments.[iv]

Otpor was hired to apply the Serbian formula for regime change to Ukraine in 2004. An unnamed Otpor organizer explained, “We trained them in how to identify the key weaknesses in society and what people’s most pressing problems were—what might be a motivating factor for people, and above all young people, to go to the ballot box and in this way shape their own identity.” Social movement theory would say they identity weakness in the elite and citizen discontent as their main resources or assets. Thus, regime changes happened in Eastern Europe with the help of US funding.

Popovic still leads CANVAS in Belgrade. It’s also called the Revolution Academy and stresses discipline and planning in training leaders from over 59 countries. Their books are available for free download.[v] CANVAS went on to “advise groups of young people on how to take on some of the worst governments in the world–and in Georgia, Ukraine, Syria-occupied Lebanon, the Maldives, and now Egypt, those young people won.”[vi] It trained activists in Spain, Morocco, Azerbaijan, Venezuela, Cuba, Zimbabwe, Syria, Iran, Vietnam, Tibet, Bolivia, etc. CANVAS prefers to work with students because they’re idealistic and energetic. (Reporter Rosenberg describes recent CANVAS training with Burmese resistance leaders in her article cited in the previous endnote.) Within a week of the start of Occupy Wall St., Otpor activists came to New York to assist Americans. CANVAS was also involved in the 2014 Kiev uprising, as in handing out a pamphlet previously given to Egyptian activists and paying university students and unemployed Ukrainians to bus into Kiev to demonstrate. [vii] Ivana Mastilovic Jasnic accuses CANVAS of being a “revolution consultancy” for the US.[viii]

Although the USSR disintegrated in 1991, democracy hasn’t flourished in the former republics. Putin has led Russia since 1999; his current term extends to 2018. The exceptions are the Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia that have fair elections and belong to NATO.

 

Eastern Europe 2012-2014

 

Poland led the largest movement in Eastern Europe in 1980 to 1981. The Solidarity Movement demanded the right to an independent trade union in the USSR and freedom of speech, mobilizing millions of people. When the USSR fell apart in 1991, the former Yugoslavia broke up into Slovenia, Macedonia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, and Bosnia.

 

Hungary and Slovenia

In 2012, hundreds of thousands of Hungarians marched against undemocratic legislation, the new constitution and education budget cuts. Prime Minister Viktor Orban backed down, keeping university education free. Similar large protests occurred in Slovenia that unseated the governing coalition: A protester explained, “People simply can’t stand having corrupted politicians using people’s hard-earned money for their own corrupted interests anymore.” The demonstrators chanted, “It is enough, they are done,” similar to Egyptians telling Mubarak to leave. A transition government was headed by the first woman prime minister, Alenka Bratušek (age 43) who assumed office in 2013. Previously, workers organized strikes in 2007-2008, using direct democracy in general assemblies. Actions were planned in workshops and shared with the larger group. They occupied the square in front of the stock exchange.

The Student Network in Hungary is called HaHa, against proposed cuts in education and advocating for the homeless in a group called City is for All. The younger members were more practical than ideological, according to a student activist, Csaba Jelinek.[ix] He explained they use non-hierarchical organizing, using familiar hand signs to communicate in large groups as used globally. He edits a social science journal, Fordulat, translating leftish academic trends such as the concept of the precarious worker in post-working-class activism.

Locally, people organized district forums to influence municipal planning. In the city of Maribor, led by young people every fifth person was on the streets to get rid of their corrupt mayor. About 120 people were arrested, mostly youth. Some were given prison sentences of seven months. The forums practiced direct democracy in five self-organized assemblies, and started coop projects such as urban gardens. They defined direct democracy as not striving for consensus; those who propose an action are responsible for doing it. Some tried to force consensus statements, but this effort was rejected. They struggled with how to prevent speakers on the central stage from seeming to speak for everyone and how to make civil society out of direct democracy. Activists would like to run their own factories using the principles of self-organization.

Kosovo began a movement for more independence from neoliberal international organizations, called Levizja Vetevendosje, or the Movement for Self-Determination, in 2005. This movement does have a leader who began his activism in the student movement: Albin Kurti explained, “We think that . . .direct participatory democracy ensures a more vibrant society. Representative democracy is illegitimate, it creates alienation and limits choice. The problematizing of the issue was the initial face of our movement.”[x] The movement is known for its use of slogans and graffiti.[xi]

 

Bosnia

In Sarajevo, Bosnia, thousands of protesters occupied Parliament Square, so the Prime Minister had to escape through a back window. Protesters’ message to politicians was “You are all disgusting, no matter what ethnicity you belong to,” a reference to pitting Serbs against Bosnians. The trigger for the protests was a family couldn’t get a travel ID for their sick baby who needed medical attention outside Bosnia. Protests by laid off workers were organized on the Facebook page “50,000 people for a better tomorrow.” The workers from five factiories in Tuzla were joined by students and others at the Tuzia court building in 2014. Pushed back violently by police, protesters threw eggs and stones at the building and set several government buildings on fire including the presidential building in Sarajevo. Solidarity rallies were organized across the country.

In 2014, Workers and unemployed people joined in the largest and most violent protests since civil war two decades earlier after the fall of communism, with slogans like “He who sows hunger reaps anger” spray painted on government buildings. Most privatization of state-owned companies failed. About 45% are unemployed, health care is unreliable, and pollution problematic. Youth don’t feel they have a future. Protesters are seen on Twitter vandalizing government buildings in various cities and throwing firecrackers and stones at police in what an activist called “a collective nervous breakdown.” They formed a new movement called UDAR (also the name of a Ukrainian opposition party). They urge Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats to fight together—“Death to Nationalism,” said one graffiti message, but Salafi and other Islamic extremist groups exist. General assemblies called plenums were set up in around 20 Bosnian towns, including Tuzia where unemployed workers inspired other cities to do the same. They drew on Yugoslav self-management experiences. A Global Uprisings short video documents the protests that began in Bosnia and Herzegovina in February 2014.[xii]

 

Bulgaria

In Bulgaria tens of thousands demonstrated against high energy costs and corruption that plagued their country since the fall of the USSR, leading to Prime Minister Boiko Borisov’s resignation in 2013. Demonstrators chanted “Mafia” against the appointment of wealthy politician Delyan Peevski (age 32) as head of National Security in June 2013. The government rescinded his nomination. Protesters chanted, “Keep your apologies, give us your resignations.” “You leave or we leave,” a reference to the brightest young people leaving the country. They were backed up by the Bulgarian police union. Protesters burned their electricity bills and protests spread to 17 cities. Prime Minister Boyko Borisov resigned. A young activist, Boris Kolev organizes through social media, Citizen.bg to “crowdsource our future political system.” Because of government control of major media, the opposition uses Facebook and Twitter. Sites like Bivol.bg published Wikileaks documents. They want the constitution to be rewritten, term limits, and campaign finance reform.

 

Romania

Romanians demonstrated in the largest European environmental protest in more than 25 cities against shale gas fracking by Chevron and open-pit gold mining with tons of cyanide on Rosia Montana. Learning from Turkey’s assemblies and working groups, they formed discussion groups and posted on Facebook to keep each other informed. They handed out flyers in subways and trams in a guerrilla information campaign and Romanians abroad also campaigned against the mining by showing a 20-minute documentary. A slogan was, “The Revolution Begins at Rosia Montana!” In farm villages, people said if Chevron starts drilling they would use their pitchforks to resist. The goal was, “This is a message for international solidarity. If we all are united against our common enemies, the State and Capital, one day we could bring a better world in the place of the current one. Our commons are under attack.”

Youth activists, eight members of a youth movement called N!DA were jailed in 2014 in Azerbaijan for speaking out about police violence and government corruption. One of them was inspired by Russian author Gorky’s novel The Mother, as he wrote to his own mother.[i]

Ukraine

Otpor was hired to apply the Serbian formula for regime change in Ukraine in 2004. An unnamed Otpor organizer explained, “We trained them in how to identify the key weaknesses in society and what people’s most pressing problems were—what might be a motivating factor for people, and above all young people, to go to the ballot box and in this way shape their own identity.” Social Movement Theory would say they identity weakness in the elite and citizen discontent as their main resources or assets.

Ukraine gained independence after the collapse of the USSR in 1991. It’s pulled between dependence on Russia for its energy supply and nearly 30% of its trade is with Russia. Russian influence is strongest in the industrialized and Russian-speaking east, while the West is closer to Poland and the EU, less populated and more agrarian. The south is the only area with a majority of ethnic Russians. As in Russia, oligarchs took control of former state assets and then got involved in politics to protect their wealth. The GDP per capita is only about $6,000 a year, a third of Poland’s GDP.

Government efforts to cheat on the 2004 presidential elections led to the “Orange Revolution,” the symbol of the opposition. Some of the protesters were trained and funded by American NGOs and government agencies like USAID, as in Serbia and Georgia the previous year. George W. Bush’s administration spent $58 million to help Ukrainians foment a peaceful uprising against their dictator, although they complained his administration didn’t help sustain them.[ix] The US spent over $5 billion since its independence in 1991 to “help” pro-western parties, according to US Assistant Secretary of State Victoria Nuland.[x] Large protests and rebellion by the media against government control resulted in mediation by the EU and a new election. The tent city occupied by protesters was a precursor for Tahrir Square and other occupations.

The new president, Viktor Yuschenko carried out some democratic reforms but rivalry with Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko inhibited their ability to reverse economic problems after 2008. This led to a $16.5 billion loan from the IMF with all the usual austerity cuts. Their opponent in the Orange Revolution, Viktor Yanukovych won the 2010 presidential election, tilting Ukraine to the Russian side. He restricted media freedom and put rival politicians like Yulia Tymoshenko in jail. He also pushed unpopular neoliberal measures although public pressure prevented them from becoming law.

Large protests occurred in the west against Putin’s pressure on the government to resist closer ties to Europe and a proposed treaty with the European Union in 2013. The president rejected a trade deal with the EU at the last moment partly because it would end gas subsidies from Russia. The government was also negotiating a $15 billion loan from the IMF, with the usual strings attached in terms of austerity cuts. A group of protesters pulled down[xi] Kiev’s statue of Lenin and decapitated it. An opposition leader with the nationalist Svoboda Party, Oleh Tyahnybok told the crowd, “It’s not just a simple revolution. It’s a revolution of dignity.” Protestors called for end of government corruption. Police arrests incited larger crowds, as in all the other uprisings.

Inspired by the Occupy movement and its organizing methods with tents and masks, a large student movement tries to stay clear of political parties asking them not to display party symbols. As reporter Marina Lewycka said, “For the young people in the square, this whole game of political tit-for-tat is what they reject.”[xii] (The endnote includes video sources.) These young people grew up in an independent Ukraine and see themselves as Europeans, while another group of protesters is aligned with political parties. However, they didn’t form assemblies in Independence Square as opposition parties took over organizing. An effort to form a liberal “Civic Council of Maidan” didn’t get off the ground and some leftists carrying feminist slogans were attached by right-wing forces.

Denis, a member of the Autonomous Workers’ Union in Kiev, reported the protesters initially were mainly students and urban “middle classes,” and then over the three months became more “proletarian.”[xiii] However, the percent of workers was low and they didn’t think of themselves as a class. Some far-right groups joined the protests including Right Sector and Svoboda, critical of the EU for being too liberal. Denis used Marxist language to explain, the “intelligentsia and petty bourgeoisie were the main social forces supporting Ukrainian nationalism.” He said the collapse of the USSR was replaced by a mixture of nationalism and conservatism in Ukraine and other former republics like Poland, Hungary, and Romania as well as the Arab Spring countries after the downfall of the dictators. Denis said the Ukrainian Svoboda and other fascists are similar to the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamic parties.

Students held up banners in English stating, “Ukraine is part of Europe!” and “Back to Russia? Oh bitch, plss!” The common demand was for Yanukovych to resign, “Get out criminal! Death to the criminal!” The first three post-Soviet Ukrainian leaders wrote a press release stating that, “We express solidarity with the peaceful civil actions of hundreds of thousands of young Ukrainians.” The government sent a mass message to cell phones in use near the protests stating, “Dear subscriber, you are registered as a participant in a mass disturbance.”

I asked Max about it; he’s a 28-year-old high school teacher in western Ukraine.


I support the initiatives of people in Kyiv Maydan. The vector of protests has been changed after the police violated the rights of people in Maydan
[the main square in Kyiv]. You won’t see many people there during the working days, but the number increasingly changes on weekends. It is a peaceful protest. But we have to be realistic; there are no legal backgrounds to overthrow the government now. [Parliament failed to pass a no-confidence vote to topple the government of President Viktor Yanukovych.] In my opinion these events will end up without any changes. The main problem is that the key opposition leader is imprisoned. [He suggested YouTube videos about Ukrainian issues.[xiv]]

 

The videos Max recommends show many police on the streets and evidence of lavish presidential lifestyle. A more recent video shows the interior after the president fled in a helicopter to Russia in February 2014.[xv] When I commented on this, he said Ukraine is a police state, not just in big cities where they also have plain-clothes police, but in small towns too. The west is more free but in the east and south, “They are like North Korea, with access only to governmental TV channels as most of the independent media are blocked. The Internet helps, but propaganda is stronger coming from the authorities.” Anna, 18, one of his students, commented on corruption,

 

I would prohibit bribes and try to decline the level of corruption in my country. I would improve the medical and educational systems by modernization and additional qualification improvement programs. I would decrease the number of unemployed people by rehabilitation of the old closed factories. I would do everything possible to make my country great and developed with European values, healthy nation and high standards of living.

 

Crowds of over 300,000 gathered in the largest protests since the 2004 Orange Revolution. As in other occupations of squares, they built shelters and provided entertainment as well as speeches and services like first aid stations, food stalls, and a church tent. They chanted “Glory to Ukraine” and “Peaceful Protest,” but the police charged them anyway, causing Secretary of State John Kerry to express his “disgust.” Opposition leader Vitali Klitschko told the crowd, “This is an island of freedom and we will defend it.” President Yanukovych represented the eastern part of the country where people speak Russian, while demonstrators are more likely to speak Ukrainian, and live in the western part of the country.

The government outlawed demonstrations in Kiev involving loudspeakers, tents, banners, and wearing helmets and masks on January 16, 2014. This crackdown only made the demonstrations more violent, which increased police violence, kidnapping demonstrators, and the first deaths in the two months of the demonstrations. Protests spread to other western cities and even to eastern and southern Ukraine and tents remained in Independence Square. Demonstrators lit firecrackers, beat rhythms on metal sheets, and burned tires as a circular barricade to keep police out. They fought with rocks, bats and firebombs. Women helped dig up paving stones and passed them down a line for fighters to throw at police. Older women shouted at police, “Killers!” and “Shoot us, kill us, kill us, you bastards.” In negotiations with opposition leaders, Yanukovich promised to reshuffle his cabinet and release some jailed demonstrators. However, the crowd booed opposition leader Vitali Klitschko, yelling “Shame!” and “Revolution!” They wanted the president out.

Two weeks later the president agreed to rescind antiprotest laws that outlawed masks and permitted a six-year jail terms for blocking public buildings, as demonstrators wore masks in defiance. But the government wouldn’t offer amnesty for jailed protesters unless demonstrators stopped their protests against Yanukovych. They also wanted action to prevent election fraud. Thousands of anti-demonstrators tired of the protests rushed a Kiev barricade but retreated after meeting resistance.

Former President Leonid Kravchuk warned that Ukraine was gripped by revolution and on the verge of civil war. On February 18, after Putin offered the Ukraine $2 billion, the conflict escalated. Deaths and injuries escalated as snipers picked off protesters killing 25 people as fires lit up the night sky in Kiev, and a policeman was shot in the head. A protester explained that the difference between the 2004 protests and 2014 was the military didn’t support the current protests. President Obama warned the government not to step over the line and bring in the army while President Putin accused the protesters of being brown shirts, as in Nazi troops and fascist bandits. The far right Freedom Party and Right Sector organized militias that forced police from the streets of Kiev, without a unified left leadership. The EU and Western countries called for an end to violence as 82 people were killed in the protests.

As Yanukovych’s military protectors left him, as they did Ben Ali and Mubarck, he boarded a helicopter for the east on February 23. An activist said as news spread that Yanukovych had left Kiev, “I have never seen so many people smiling. Everyone is overflowing with delight.” Ukrainians lined up to see his place with a zoo, tennis court, swimming pool, car collection, and a huge mansion with gold bathroom fixtures. Parliament took it over as a public space. In a speech given in Russian, from Russia, Yanukovych said he was still the elected president and condemned the “bandit coup” that replaced him with a new leader, Oleksandr Turchynov – he became a Head of the Parliament. He is a close ally of Tymoshenko and her “BatkivschynaFatherland” Party, which is accused of appalling corruption. The new Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenjuk said “welcome to hell’ because Ukraine was bankrupt, “on the brink of a disaster” because $70 billion was sent out of the country during Yanukovych’s presidency. Yatsenjuk was 39, a fluent English speaker and member of the “BatkivschynaFatherland” Party, and one of the new breed of young leaders as in Italy and Greece. Nominees for the new cabinet were introduced to 50,000 people in the square and they were addressed by former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko just released from prison. She told them, “You are heroes, you are the best thing in Ukraine! I was dreaming to feel the power that changed everything.” Rumors were that she would like to be president.

Russia sent troops into Crimea with uniforms with no insignia but Russian license plates on their vehicles. They took over the airport and military bases and public buildings because it has a majority of ethnic Russians and a large Russian naval base. Russia’s Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev condemned the new Ukrainian government as “Kalashnikov-touting people in black masks,” terrorists backed by the US. Russians also blamed the US for the 2004 Orange Revolution in Ukraine. Putin got the highest public approval rating since he returned to the presidency in 2012. He labeled the revolutionaries in Kiev fascist Nazis backed by the CIA and the EU. Russian parliament member Nikolai Ryzhkov blamed the West, saying, “They tore apart Yugoslavia, routed Egypt, Libya, Iraq and so on, and all this under the false guise of peaceful demonstrations. So we must be ready in case they will unleash the dogs on us.”[xvi] Another member of parliament said President Obama insulted the Russian people. This led to discussion of a new cold war, complicated by the economic fact that about 40% of Europe’s natural gas comes from Russia, mostly through Ukraine.

When asked if the revolution made a difference in his life, Max said:

 

Nothing has significantly changed with the coming of a new government. We are in a big black hole economically. Most of the prices in Ukraine depend on the dollar rate, within the past few months dollar rate has changed considerably, this change gave a push to turn up the prices for fuel, gas, clothes and even food, in other words our salaries remained the same and most of the prices doubled or even tripled in some areas. I spent almost $100 to buy some clothes and shoes for my son and I was very upset when the shop assistant said that it was not the final price change. So, has the new government changed anything for me? I have to say yes, prices are the only thing they have changed. As for positive changes, so the corruption decreased a little, not much.    

   The new PM is a smart and intelligent guy, but he seems weak as a personality. But I can understand this having such a “good” neighbor as Russia. I am also glad that the president will no longer have such power as the previous one. I agree that the PM must have more power, as the PM can be replaced. As for Russians, these people are unpredictable. They say they won’t go farther at noon, but during the night their troops come up closer and closer. I don’t trust Russians and never did. But we’ll see. I hope they won’t cross the border.

 

Russian speakers in the east who want to break away from Kiev seized a dozen cities’ government buildings, formed two “people’s republics, and held a referendum for autonomy similar to the vote in Crimea that led to Russian annexation. Some workers formed vigilante groups to oppose them and took over positions in several locations. Presidential elections were held on May 25, with few votes for the neo-fascist parties Right Sector and Svoboda much derided by Russian leaders. Petro Poroshenko was elected pro-western president, called the “chocolate king” because he is one of Ukraine’s richest men, who owns chocolate factories. In second place was another wealthy oligarch, former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko. Six months after the encampment began in Kiev, several hundred protesters remained in the camp, suspicious of the government. They planned to stay until reforms were implemented.

Max update the conflict with the Russians, September 3, 2014:

Russians were in the East from the very beginning.

During my vacation in Carpathians I met a woman from Donetska region.

She was very irate with uninvited Russians. They have destroyed her home and she moved to the Western part of Ukraine.

There is no civil war in Ukraine. We have people from Luhanska region in my site. The attitude to those people is pretty much the same as to anyone else. Nobody violets their rights and no one cares about their language, which is Russian.

So, it is open Russian aggression towards Ukraine.

That woman I met in Carpathians told me that there were many people from her region involved to that conflict as so called “rebels”, are drug and alcohol adicted.

She also said that 5 people out of 10 will be pro-ukrainian, 3 neutral and 2 pro-russian.

And answering the question about the presence of Russian troops, not a single person can deny their presence.

 

[i]Gene Sharp. From Dictatorship to Democracy. The Albert Einstein Institution. Fourth edition, 2010. http://www.aeinstein.org/organizations98ce.html

[ii] Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “Shy U.S. Intellectual Created Playbook Used in a Revolution,” New York Times, February 16, 2011.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/17/world/middleeast/17sharp.html?_r=1&src=ISMR_AP_LO_MST_FB

[iii] Carl Gibson and Steve Horn, “Exposed: Globally Renowned Activist Collaborated with Intelligence Firm Stratfor,” Counter Punch, December 3, 2013.

http://www.counterpunch.org/2013/12/03/globally-renowned-activist-collaborated-with-stratfor/

[iv] Ivana Mastilovic Jasnic, “CIA in Shadow,” BLIC online, November 18, 2013.

http://english.blic.rs/News/10033/CIA-in-shadow-praised-members-of-Serbian-Resistance

[v] http://www.canvasopedia.org/legacy/content/special/core.htm

[vi] Tina Rosenberg, “Revolution U,” FP: Foreign Policy, February 16, 2011. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/02/16/revolution_u&page=full

[vii] William Engdahl, “US NGO Uncovered in Ukraine Protests,” Boiling Frogs Post, January 7, 2014.

http://www.boilingfrogspost.com/2014/01/07/us-ngo-uncovered-in-ukraine-protests/

[viii] Ivana Mastilovic Jasnic, “CIA in Shadow,” BLIC online, November 18, 2013.

http://english.blic.rs/News/10033/CIA-in-shadow-praised-members-of-Serbian-Resistance

[ix] Joel Brinkley, “Obstacles to Democracy Remain for Libya, Tunisia,” San Francisco Chronicle, October 30, 2011.

http://articles.sfgate.com/2011-10-30/opinion/30340839_1_ukraine-democracy-president-viktor-yanukovych

[x] Vidieo on “Regime Change in Kiev,” February 9, 2014. http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article37599.htm

[xi] http://www.occupy.com/article/sofia-protesters-reorganize-bulgarian-parliament-takes-vacation

[xii] Marina Lewychka, “Optimistic Young Ukrainians Look to Europe.” The Guardian, December 1, 2013.

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/01/optimistic-young-ukrainians-europe-russian-power

http://globalvoicesonline.org/specialcoverage/ukraines-euromaiden-protests/

[xiii] Roar Collective, “The Contradictions of the Euromaidan Uprising,” ROAR Magazine, February 21, 2014.

http://roarmag.org/2014/02/euromaidan-protests-ukraine-contradictions/

[xiv] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLleEM0ivh8

http://www.kyivpost.com/content/ukraine-abroad/new-video-i-am-a-ukrainian-surfaces-on-youtube-336640.html

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCrJIIeADD45RsffK2yYgmSw

[xv] http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/europe/100000002732759/inside-the-museum-of-corruption.html?nl=todaysheadlines&emc=edit_th_20140225

[xvi] Alison Smale and Steven Erlanger, “Ukraine Mobilizes Reserve Troops, Threatening War,” New York Times, March 1, 2014.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/02/world/europe/ukraine.html

[xvii] https://globalyouthbook.wordpress.com/2014/07/31/ / ‎

Russians were in the East from the very beginning.

During my vacation in Carpathians I met a woman from Donetska region.

She was very irate with uninvited Russians. They have destroyed her home and she moved to the Western part of Ukraine.

There is no civil war in Ukraine. We have people from Luhanska region in my site. The attitude to those people is pretty much the same as to anyone else. Nobody violets their rights and no one cares about their language, which is Russian.

So, it is open russian agression towards Ukraine.

That woman I met in Carpathians told me that there were many people from her region involved to that conflict as so called “rebels”, are drug and alcohol adicted.

She also said that 5 people out of 10 will be pro-ukrainian, 3 neutral and 2 pro-russian.

And answering the question about the presence of russian troops, not a single person can deny their presence.

 

[i] Arzu Geybullayeva, “Bring the Bottle,” Global Voices, April 17, 2014.

http://globalvoicesonline.org/2014/04/17/bring-the-bottle-youth-activists-behind-bars-in-azerbaijan/

 

[i]Gene Sharp. From Dictatorship to Democracy. The Albert Einstein Institution. Fourth edition, 2010. http://www.aeinstein.org/organizations98ce.html

[ii] Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “Shy U.S. Intellectual Created Playbook Used in a Revolution,” New York Times, February 16, 2011.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/17/world/middleeast/17sharp.html?_r=1&src=ISMR_AP_LO_MST_FB

[iii] Carl Gibson and Steve Horn, “Exposed: Globally Renowned Activist Collaborated with Intelligence Firm Stratfor,” Counter Punch, December 3, 2013.

http://www.counterpunch.org/2013/12/03/globally-renowned-activist-collaborated-with-stratfor/

[iv] Ivana Mastilovic Jasnic, “CIA in Shadow,” BLIC online, November 18, 2013.

http://english.blic.rs/News/10033/CIA-in-shadow-praised-members-of-Serbian-Resistance

[v] http://www.canvasopedia.org/legacy/content/special/core.htm

[vi] Tina Rosenberg, “Revolution U,” FP: Foreign Policy, February 16, 2011. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/02/16/revolution_u&page=full

[vii] William Engdahl, “US NGO Uncovered in Ukraine Protests,” Boiling Frogs Post, January 7, 2014.

http://www.boilingfrogspost.com/2014/01/07/us-ngo-uncovered-in-ukraine-protests/

[viii] Ivana Mastilovic Jasnic, “CIA in Shadow,” BLIC online, November 18, 2013.

http://english.blic.rs/News/10033/CIA-in-shadow-praised-members-of-Serbian-Resistance

[ix]John Feffer, “Hungarian Students Reist,” John Fegger blog, December 10, 2013.

http://www.johnfeffer.com/hungarian-students-resist/

[x] Brad Nosan, “Kosovos’ Vetevendosje Movement Doesn’t Like Foreign Intervention,” Vice, august 15, 2012.

http://www.vice.com/read/kosovos-vetevendosje-movement-doesnt-like-foreign-intervention

[xi] http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/kosovo-s-vetevendosje-keep-faith-in-graffiti-power

http://www.google.com/search?q=kosovo+vetevendosje+graffiti&espv=210&es_sm=91&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=ses0U5PxAsTuyAHlj4GIBA&ved=0CDwQsAQ&biw=14

[xii] http://www.globaluprisings.org/

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s