Cuban socialism under Fidel (age 32 when he took over in 1959) aimed to create a “new man” like Che Guevara who puts the group good over individual good. Che said, “I am not me anymore, at least I am not the same me as I was before” the revolution.[i] After Che died in 1967, students pledged before starting class, “We will be like Che.” Fidel Castro said in 1960, “Youth people are the purest product of the Revolution!” A young computer scientist, Eliécer Ávila blogged in 2014,
I grew up listening to my teachers saying that our society was building the man of the future, a different one, one that would have no defects, no malice, none of the vices “inherited from capitalism.” Those of us who over the years strived to bring ourselves closer to something that is a good New Man, today find we are aliens maladapted to this society.[ii]
Eliécer Ávila, a computer scientist and blogger, age 29, started a political movement call Somos+ (We are More) in 2014.[iii] In a “letter to young people” he asked them to get involved in “the reconstruction of the country,” rather than complaining. He aims to overcome isolation and enable people to express themselves on a platform without fear, hoping to mobilize a vanguard. His goals are a democratic parlament, free access to the Internet
[i] Gonzalo Gernandez, “The New Man in Cuba,” Intrepid Media, July 30, 2013.
The most powerful woman in the world, German Chacellor Angela Merkel is referred to in her country as “Mutti,” Mother. The name was first used by rivals in her Christian Democratic Union party as an insult, but then caught on with the public and she embraced it.[i] She doesn’t have children, is in her second marriage, doesn’t sleep more than five hours a night, was a brilliant student with a doctorate in quantum chemistry and approaches politics like a scientist rather than being a charismatic public speaker, and grew up in communist Eastern Germany where books were banned and newspaper censored. Despite her unlikely background, she won her third term in office in 2014.
Merkel is not a feminist, saying she had no interest in her first appointment as Minister of Women and Youth. At that time Chancellor Helmut Kohl referred to his as “my girl,” mein Mädchen, later regretting the appointment, telling a friend she was a snake who wanted power. She feels being a woman can be an advantage, comparing her experience in the chemistry laboratory with all male colleagues, ”The men in the laboratory always had their hands on all the buttons at the same time. I couldn’t keep up with this, because I was thinking. And then things suddenly went ‘poof,’ and the equipment was destroyed.” She listens more than she talks. A former US Ambassador to Germany, John Kornblum observed, “If you cross her, you end up dead. There’s nothing cushy about her. There’s a whole list of alpha males who thought they would get her out of the way, and they’re all now in other walks of life.”
[i] George Packer, “The Quiet German,” New Yorker, December 1, 2014.
Pollution kills more people than disease in the developing world, killing more than 8.4 million people a year.[i] Climate change especially impacts the poor, as it will slow economic growth, diminish food production, and create new poverty particularly in urban areas, according to the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.[ii] In Ethiopia, Yohannes, a boy, 15, reports they face “an environmental hazard problem because it is very dirty and toxic. Also there is a shortage of electricity and water.” The US Department of Defense Army Modernization Strategy predicted that competition for depleted natural resources will lead to an “era of persistent conflict” and resource wars over water, food and energy.[iii] To solve climate change, inequality must be tackled, according to Kate Raworth, author of Donut Economics.[iv]Examples of projects that followed the People’s Climate March are discussed in an article in Yes! Magazine.[v]
The over one billion people who live in abject poverty consume very little living on less than $1.25 a day,[vi] (the poverty line in the US is $63 a day for a family of four). Estimates are the number of people with a daily income of $10 a day or more will grow by two billion in 2025—mostly in the global South, a projected $26 trillion increase in annual consumption from 2010 to 2025.[vii] This means more consumption of resources and more pollution. People in wealthy nations waste resources and emit gases into the atmosphere that produce global warming that harms all the planet’s inhabitants. The US generates 590,000,000,000 pounds of waste each year and less than 20% is recycled (recycling solutions are included in Christina Sarich’s article).[viii] Eliminating food waste would feed 1 billion people a year as the US wastes 31% of the food supply. Most of the e-waste goes to China: China, the US, and India are the top polluters. Ninety corporations and states are responsible for nearly two-thirds of all carbon emissions since 1751, and two-thirds were produced in the last 25 years since warnings about the danger of global warming.[ix] A spokesperson for indigenous youth organized by the UN, Andrea Landry of the Anishinaabe tribe of Canada, contrasted her traditional with modern attitudes; “We’re in a relationship with the land; it’s a living thing. It’s not a matter of take, take, take. We give to the land and the land gives to us.”[x]
China emits over a quarter of the world’s greenhouse gas: A video illustrating China’s pollution is cited in the previous endnote.[xi] Yuan, SpeakOut correspondent in China, reported, “Beijing’s appalling air pollution is killing me. You warned me. But this goes way beyond my imagination. I still can’t believe they just don’t do anything to their capital’s environment! The air pollution index has been beyond the measuring of the AQI chart!!!” It’s not just Beijing; the China Daily reported that most of China’s major cities are “barely suitable for living.” We may think of the CCP (Chinese Communist Party) as able to snap its fingers and get action, but Hebei province, for example, has lower standards than Beijing. Winds blow pollution from the neighboring province’s coal-fired power plants, factories and cars into Beijing. The government announced a plan in 2013 to invest $16 billion over three years to reduce the capital’s pollution. Only three of 74 Chinese cities monitored by the government met minimum standards for air quality in 2013. For the first time, in 2014 the government announced it will reduce emissions by 2030 or earlier by expanding renewable energy to around 20%.
Scientists report that devastating climate change will follow from anything above a two-degree Celsius rise in global temperature, but some think even two degrees will lead to “intergenerational injustice.”[xii] We’re already suffering from changing rainfall patterns, drought, more frequent heat waves and wildfires, and ocean rise. A UN report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released a sobering report in 2014, mirroring a report by the world’s largest scientific society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science.[xiii] The UN climate change meeting in Puru to prepare for the 2015 Paris conference (the 20th conference) agreed to phase out greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, with lesser reductions by 2020. However, the Saudi representative in Lima said he didn’t this goal is realistic when two billion people don’t yet have access to energy.
Climate change deniers don’t have a scientific leg to stand on, but a 2013 poll found that one-third of Americans believed that scientists weren’t in agreement about the danger of global warming. The US military recognized problems associated with climate weirdness, as spelled out in a 2014 report.[xiv] A lack of solutions is not the issue, as with all environmental problems, it’s the lack of willingness to replace the coal and high-sulfur fuel used in China and other countries. To prevent this disaster, at least half of the world’s fossil fuel reserves must remain unburned. Three countries address action for climate change in their constitutions: Tunisia, Ecuador and Dominican Republic, and over 90 countries include the right to live in a healthy environment in their constitutions.[xv] Global warming and carbon emissions are already wrecking havoc, but the costs of emission controls are small if done soon, as a Chamber of Commerce report verifies.[xvi] Despite the fact that global emissions continue to increase (up 2.1% in 2013), resistance to change is great, fed by right-wing anti-intellectualism in the US. In 2014, they pressed the House of Representatives to instruct the military not to study how to cope with climate change. Not being able to get action from Congress, President Obama announced an almost $1 billion initiative for communities to develop infrastructure to cope with the effects of climate change. He urged youth, the generation hurt by inaction, to speak up.
Superstorm Sandy in 2012 increased awareness of climate change in the US. An AP-GfK poll of adults held after the storm reported that only 22% think little or nothing should be done by the government to prevent global warming, a 3% decline from a 2009 survey. With extreme weather patterns like hurricanes and high temperatures, the numbers of Americans who see global warming as a serious problem has increased from 46% in 2009 to 68% in 2012, so the number of concerned young environmentalists will probably increase as well.[i]
The bottom line is that all living beings’ future depends on the environment. Climate change especially hurts low-income countries by reducing crop production, increasing drought or floods, and raising sea levels. In an increasingly connected world, ozone created in China reaches the west coast of the US. Bill McKibben (one of the most influential US environmentalists) reports that global warming is here now, that warming will increase by at least five degrees this century making it an inhospitable planet. He said the world will need to cut fossil fuel use by 70% to stop the increase.[ii] We’re losing the fight because of the money spent by the fossil fuel industry, so he backs divestment by universities (i.e., University of Hawaii), companies (Axa in France), churches (Church of England), and countries (Norway). Although the statistics are gloomy, he’s encouraged by global activism, especially the defeat of the XL Pipeline in 2015.
The 2015 Paris conference committed to 1.5 Celsius, although temperatures are already up by 1 degree and 90% of the world’s fossil fuels would need to be left in the ground. Developed countries pledged to raise $100 billion to invest in green energy in developing countries, but without specifics and a small amount compared to the US $600 billion military budget.[iii] A report released in 2016 by Greenpeace, the Sierra Club and 350.org listed dangerous fossil fuel expansions underway in Australia, Canada, China, the US, Russia, and Africa that will push the climate past the danger zone.[iv] In 2015 Citibank predicted it will cost $44 trillion to mitigate the disastrous effects of climate change by 2060.
Some US states commission climate change studies in order to prepare for the future, but Republican state legislators prohibit the use of words that associate climate change with humans, as in Nebraska, or the use of “sea level rise” and “climate change.” A Virginia lawmaker labels these phrases as liberal propaganda. Some members of Congress say climate change is a hoax.[v] Congress voted to remove Environmental Protection Agency rules to cut emissions from coal plants while President was advocating action in the Paris climate change Congress in November 2015. In 2014, US Senators including Barbara Boxer formed a think tank to counter climate change denial propaganda (as seen in video clips of Congressional deniers[vi]), hoping to be able to pass legislation to tax carbon emissions. President Obama’s Clean Power Plan, based on the Clean Air Act, required states to reduce carbon emission 32% from 2005 levels by 2030. However, 27 states sued to stop Obama’s “war on coal.”
Alarmingly for the future of the planet, many youth are unaware of the consequences of climate weirdness and about 40% of the US public believes warming is natural. Although 200 nations agreed that warming shouldn’t increase past 2 degrees, global emissions are increasing with devastating consequences. A survey looking at 11,000 years of climate readings found a dramatic U-turn of rising temperatures.[vii] The Arctic is melting even though the planet is just 0.8 degrees Celsius warmer than it was before industrialization, impacting coastal areas and acidification of the oceans.[viii] Melting the artic ice sheets releases huge amounts of methane, which is worse than carbon dioxide.
Greenhouse gas emissions increased 2.3% in 2013, mainly because of large increases in China and India, according to the Global Carbon Project. A World Bank report states that we’re headed toward a four degrees centigrade warmer world by the end of the century with no certainty that humans can adapt to extreme heat waves, loss of agricultural land, and sea-level rise that will jeopardize major cities.[ix] Low-income people are most harmed by climate change; a group of journalists documents the impact of climate change on poor girls and women.[x] The UN’s Green Climate Fund assists poor countries as they switch to lower-carbon energy sources. The International Energy Agency predicts that six degrees Celsius is more likely and that dangerous warming will be locked in by 2017 if change isn’t implemented.
At the UN climate conference of 2015 every major country made a comment to cut emissions but not enough to prevent continued heating of the atmosphere to 6.3 Fahrenheit.[xi] The commitments would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 3% below the present 8% rise by 2030. Emissions currently average five metric tons per person annually—17 tons in the US and six tons in China. To save the planet, this would need to fall to one ton similar to emissions from Haiti and Yemen. Around the same time as the Paris conference, the House of Representatives voted to keep the EPA from considering the costs of climate change.[xii]
In Naomi Klein’s analysis, “our economic system and our planetary system are now at war” on a dying planet. She explained that deregulated and privatized capitalism prevents lowering emissions in a world controlled by “an elite minority that has a stranglehold over our economy, our political process, and most of our major media outlets.” Her blog “The Leap” provides updates on climate change issues and activism.[xiii] Klein called for an end to fossil fuel subsidies (worth $5.3 trillion in 2015 and more than all governments spend on health care combined, according to the IMF), taxes on financial transactions and increased royalties on fossil fuel extraction and a progressive carbon tax. Global economic “degrowth” is required to rescue the planet as 80% of fossil fuels need to be kept in the ground.
The German program Energiewene provides a green model by converting almost 30% of their electricity from solar and wind in about 15 years.[xiv] More than 1.7 million households and cooperatives generate their own electricity The leading solar producers in 2014 were Germany, China, Japan, Italy, US, France, Spain, UK, Australia and Belgium. The International Living Future Institute “offers green building and infrastructure solutions that move across scales (from single room renovations to neighborhoods or whole cities.)”[xv] Globally 1.3 billion people don’t have electricity and can benefit from solar energy. NGOS like Empowered by Light provides solar energy in developing countries helping students study at night and even help prevent rape of young women in dormitories.[xvi] About a quarter of the people without electricity live in India and millions more can access it for only a few idea a day, using unhealthy but cheap kerosene lamps that make it hard for students to study at night. Prime Minister Modi raised funding for solar technology, but also increased the number of polluting coal plants. Corporations like Selco India sell small solar units to homes.
Some progress is occurring with reducing funding for coal-burning plants, capping limits on carbon emissions or taxing them, lobbying for ending government subsidies for oil companies, and stopping the use of CFCs (fluorocarbons with chlorine).[xvii] The Gates Foundation invited investors to join the Breakthrough Energy coalition to invest in carbon-free energy, joined by researchers at the University of California. Huge government subsidies and tax breaks for fossil fuel corporations should be shifted to renewable energy companies, as IMF Director Christine Lagarde recommends. Norway is a model in encouraging the use of electric cars and the market for them is growing in China. Activist in the US Movement Generation Justice and Ecology Project, US activist Gopal Dayaneni believes that systems change is the umbrella goal that unites and unifies the climate movement, the global justice movement, and the antiwar movement in their focus on grassroots movements.[xviii] He’s active in the Our Power campaign to organize in communities such as the Navajo Black Mesa Water Coalition.
Others say the emphasis on reducing carbon emissions detracts from Vandana Shiva’s “regenerative agriculture” approach that captures carbon dioxide into properly farmed soil and forests, the largest “sink for CO2.”[xix] Land misuse accounts for about 30% of carbon emissions. The factory agricultural and livestock system is second only to energy consumption in creating greenhouse gases. About 150 ppm (parts per million) of harmful CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere through regenerative land use—Bob Willard lists a 12-step program for how to end fossil fuel dependency.[xx] Iowa provides an example of how to manage organic farming and transform degraded soil.[xxi] Because of the US blockade, Cuba developed perhaps the best model of sustainable agriculture, including state-supported urban farming. Regeneration International calls for a Regeneration Revolution and the World Resources Institute provides research about how to sustain natural resources, keeping in mind the human population will jump to 9.6 billion by 2050.[xxii]
Canadian Naomi Klein’s This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate (2014) is the new handbook of the climate movement. Her book was followed by a 2015 documentary with the same title. She advocates that acting on climate change is “our best chance to demand and build a better world,” thereby saying no to powerful corporations in a conflict between “capitalism versus the climate.” Climate provides the “big tent” to build a movement of movements. She advocated adopting the German model of encouraging decentralized local energy generators and predicted that change will occur because of leadership from below, as it did with the abolition movement in the 19th century.
Klein’s book predicted riots will occur to protest water shortages in an inevitable water revolt. The World Economic Forum included water crisis along with climate change and mass migration as the biggest problems facing people. Climate News Network reported that more than 40% of the world’s large cities supplied by surface water might experience drought and shortages by 2040.[xxiii] A Dutch university study reported that four billion people across the planet suffer water scarcity during at least one month during the year while half a billion struggle with it during the year.[xxiv] Globally, 663 million people lack clean drinking water and multinational corporations such as Nestle and investment firms such as Goldman Sachs are buying up water rights, privatizing water especially in developing nations. More than 180 communities remunicipalized their water. In the last 15 years.[xxv] The UN estimates that six to eight million people die annually from water-caused diseases, most of them under age five. President Mikhail Gorbachev, the last head of the USSR, pointed out that UN agencies forecast that by 2025, more than two-thirds of the world’s population will face scarcity of fresh water, which could cause massive migration and violence.[xxvi]
Reversing privatization, hundreds of cities are taking back control of their water from corporations—over 180 cities in 35 countries, especially strong in France.[xxvii] Inexpensive nanoparticle-coated paper presented in book form is an effective filter to clean contaminated water, invented by Theresa Dankovich.[xxviii] An Austrian company called Pumpmakers invented the NSP Solar Pump in hopes it will bring clean drinking water to the nearly million people without it.[xxix] It is assembled locally from a kit. The pump can reach water as deep as 800 feet even on cloudy days. Solutions are available as in all the problem areas.
Environmental models exist. Feldheim, a small town in Germany, generates renewable energy with a wind turbine and solar panels, and a biogas factory converts pig manure into heat, saving on heating oil and producing fertilizer as a byproduct. Germany installed more solar power for individuals than any other country, with over half of the installations owned by individuals, cooperatives and communities. Wind and solar and other renewable energy sources supply 27% of German’s electricity production, compared to 13% in the US.[xvii] The cost is paid for by a small surcharge on electricity bills. The German word for energy transition, energiewende, is used globally. The European Union set a goal to cut greenhouse emission by 40% from 1990 levels and achieve 27% energy from renewable sources by 2030. The countries with the best environmental records are in Europe, with the exception of Costa Rica, in third place after Sweden and Norway, with Germany and Denmark in fourth and fifth place (the US is #28).[xviii]
Ghana is building the largest solar plant in Africa. Hip-hop artist Akon, who is from Senegal, promotes affordable solar energy kits for villagers that are cheaper than kerosene, as used by Kenyan women.[xix] A model Smart Home was built by the University of California, Davis, with geothermal healing, a solar system, and efficient appliances to reduce fuel and water consumption. Evergreen helps communities set up cooperative ecological programs, including school gardens and other programs for children.[xx] Among the greenist cities to study as models of green energy, farmers’ markets, and bike paths are Vancouver (British Columbia), Portland, San Francisco, New York, Curitiba (Brazil), Bogota, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Stockholm and Malmo, Berlin, Frieburg (Germany), Feykjavik, Singapore, Adelaide, and Cape Town.[xxi] Other solutions are collected on my wordpress site.[xxii]
We’ve had 50 years of warning about threats to the environment and failed to respond during 30 years of international climate talks. A documentary A Fierce Green Fire (2012) explores 50 years of the environmental movement. The Flame Tree Project sets out a strategy to save life on earth and various sites post recent climate change data.[xxiii] The environmental organization 350.org is viewed as one of the most influential grassroots environmental organizations. It refers to the maximum safe concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, currently at 400 and rising. Students at Middlebury College and McKibben are conducting a campaign to divest from fossil fuel companies, with a list of the 200 biggest fossil fuel corporations.[xxiv] “Benefit Corporations” commit to sustainable practices. Hundreds of youth organized protests against the Keystone XL pipeline; 500 acted in civil disobedience at the White House in March 2014 and others joined in regionally “to buy back our future” in an eco-revolution, as shown in a video of the San Francisco demonstration.[xxv] One teen speaker there said, “My generation has been labeled as complacent and I refuse to accept that.” They chanted “no pipeline for the 1%.
In order to solve the climate crisis, various grassroots movements need to work together: anti-GMO, anti-natural gas extraction, traditional farming activists who oppose Confined Animal Feeding Operations responsible for up to half the greenhouse gas emissions, conservationists, natural health advocates, and the climate movement. If we remain passive, farming land will turn to dust bowls in parts of the world, the oceans will rise and continue becoming more acidic destroying food sources, more species will go extinct, and extreme weather increases.[xxvi] Clearly some young people are environmental activists and some are ignorant about problems like global warming or feel helpless to change it while the planet warms and pollution and toxic waste increase. Poor countries will suffer most from climate change and rising sea levels, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (More on climate change on the book website.) What can an individual do? Vote for environmentalists, don’t invest in fossil fuel companies, recycle, compost food, use cloth instead of plastic bags, bicycle and carpool, plant a vegetable garden, insulate homes, reduce beef consumption, and boycott junk food restaurants.
[i] Stephen Leahy, “In Developing World, Pollution Kills More than Disease,” Common Dreams, June 16, 2014.
Reminder on the occasion of his supposed birthday that Jesus was a radical who violated Old Testament taboos against discussing theology with women including a woman of ill repute, said it was better for women to be talking theology than be in the kitchen like Martha, healed bleeding people and gentiles, overturned the money changer’s tables in the temple, said it was hard for rich people to get to heaven, be like children, said to turn the other cheek and it’s spirit that counts rather than the letter of the law. The only current Christian world leader I can think of who acts and speaks as a Christian is Pope Francis. All the supposed Christian politicians who cut social welfare programs and education are the opposite of Christian.
“In a recent study, we showed that sugar, perhaps more than salt, contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease. Evidence is growing, too, that eating too much sugar can lead to fatty liver disease, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, obesity and kidney disease.
Yet people can’t resist. And the reason for that is pretty simple. Sugar is addictive. And we don’t mean addictive in that way that people talk about delicious foods. We mean addictive, literally, in the same way as drugs. And the food industry is doing everything it can to keep us hooked. Today added sugar is everywhere, used in approximately 75 percent of packaged foods purchased in the United States. The average American consumes anywhere from a quarter to a half pound of sugar a day.”
Women’s rights activist Benal Yazgan organized the new Woman Party (Kadin Partisi) party in 2014 because: “Once again, hegemony is being passed from man to man. The patriarchy is the same; they always leave women out and pass the roles amongst themselves.” She drew on the legacy of the influential People’s Party of Women created in 1923 but not recognized by the government. (Suffragette Alice Paul led the Woman’s Party in the US in 2013.) Aiming for equality, the nine founders included two men and a quota for male candidates.
Rossalyn Warren, “18 Badass Women You Probably Didn’t Hear About In 2014, BuzzFeed, December 8, 2014.
Feminist Ruchira Gupta said she was “excited about the new wave of feminism that hit the streets after the December gang rape.”[i] Laws passed the next year established six new courts to hear rape cases and imposed stricter punishments, as well as making stalking, voyeurism, trafficking and acid attacks criminal acts. Prison terms for rapists were increased to 20 years but official statistics say about 25,000 rapes occur each year. Activists say the actual number is much higher as women fear reporting rape to police. A mobile phone video of two sisters fighting back against an assault by three men on a crowded bus in Rohtak, near New Delhi, went viral in 2014 under the hashtag #RohtakBravehearts. As other passengers and bus driver did nothing to help them, Aatri and Pooja used a belt and fists to try to stop the men, who nevertheless succeeded in getting them off the bus.[ii] The girls found bricks to throw at the men and they ran away. A spokesperson for the National commission for Women said, “Few girls have the guts to take on the molesters. The government should take action.”
[i] Ruchira Gupta and Gloria Steinem, “Notes on a Tour of the Indian Women’s Movement,” New York Times, January 30, 2014.
Four of Saudi King Abdullah’s daughters (he has 38 children) charged he has imprisoned them under house arrest in the palace for 14 years for advocating more freedom for women, eradicating poverty, and release of political prisoners. The oldest sister, Sahar, praised in the jailed martyrs in a video for teaching “the meaning of freedom, rights and dignity from you revolutionary people.” Their mother lives in London and lobbied for their release taught her daughters to fight for their rights. Sahar said in an email interview they’re only allowed to go out twice a month to buy food, heavily guarded. They’re not allowed to marry, the king said to be angry that their mother didn’t give birth to a son and divorced him. When asked about the current status of women, she said women are drugged and put in mental hospitals. She wrote,
Women suffer under a brutal ‘guardianship’ system, akin to slavery. Women cannot move an inch without the approval of male guardians, a clear violation of human rights…. Women are segregated. There are signs that clearly state ‘Women are not allowed in.’ This is also true of men; signs prohibiting ‘single’ men from entering stores and restaurants.[i]
[i] Daniel Wickham, “An Interview with the Imprisoned Daughter of Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah,” Muftah, June 2, 2014.
A recent experiment in direct democracy on a larger and more permanent scale is The “Rojava Revolution” (“sunset) occurring in Kurdish regions (Kurds are mainly Muslim but some are Christian) along the Syrian and Turkish border that declared self-rule in 2012. They’re developing direct democracy, feminism and youth representation in three cantons. To implement decentralized decision-making, communes of 30 to 150 people govern their neighborhoods.[i] Some work in cooperatives such as farming or bakeries with the goal of creating a “community economy.” Despite most of its resources going to the military, everyone has their basic needs met. The communes have commissions on social issues including youth or the environment and provide educational forums on topics like women’s liberation local history. Every city has a council composed of representatives of the communes, women’s and youth’s councils, etc. The three leaders of each municipality must include a woman, a Kurd, an Arab and one Assyrian or Armenian Christian. All the councils and communes require a 40% quota for women and there are also parallel women’s councils.
The co-president of PYD (Democratic Union Party), Asya Abdullah explained that they learned from other revolutions that women’s rights can’t be put off after the revolution and they aim for permanent social revolution. Representatives of Yekitiya Star, the umbrella organization for women’s groups, explained that women are to this revolution what the proletariat was to the Marxist-Leninist revolutionaries.[ii] The barrier to women’s freedom is not patriarchy but the capitalist state. Women’s units are active fighters in the YPG (People’s Defense Forces). Solders are trained in Democratic Autonomy and motivated to fight for their ideas. One of the male soldiers said on a documentary,” “It’s 50/50, there’s no difference in female and male soldiers.” [iii] The Kurds say women are the best fighters because they’re more patient and women say they’re equal.
The new legal system is based on “peace and consensus committees.” Every commune elects the five to nine members of the committees and similar committees exist on the district level. Women’s-only committees such with crimes against woman such as forced or multiple marriages. Cases that can’t be solved through consensus move on to justice institutions on the city, regional and canton levels. Police are called civilian security forces rather than police who serve the state. Schools teach children to reject hierarchy, including teacher over student, and to “search for meaning” rather than memorize and to learn practical information.
The project is inspired by Turkey’s Worker’s Party (PKK) formed by Marxist students led by Abdullah Öcalan; he’s been jailed in a Turkish prison since 1999.[iv] His picture is frequently on display. Inspired by anarchist Murray Bookchin, the Mexican Zapatistas, and the autonomy of the Swiss canton model, the PKK aims to create “libertarian municipalism,” “Democratic Autonomy,” or “Democratic Confederalism” rather than a Kurdish state as the goal is to overcome the state. Some charge that Turkey’s government supports the so-called Islamic State as a way to weaken Kurdish autonomy, as by allowing them to cross the border unhindered. Rojava is embargoed from trading with Turkey, so it built new DIY oil refineries to power the area. Updates are available online.[v]
[i] Ulrike Flader, “On the ‘Rojava Revolution’ and the Fight Against the Islamic State,” Anarkismo.net, Ocober 4, 2014.
Why do so many people and NGOs know about and support the small Zapatista movement in the jungle of Southern Mexico with the capacity to bank international donations? A shrewd global marketing campaign was led by a spokesman formerly known as Subcomandante Marcos (changed to Subcomandante Insurgente Galeano In 2014 and thought to be former Mexican professor Rafael Guillén). The Zapatistas believed they couldn’t succeed against the Mexican government without powerful allies. They succeeded in creating an “anti-globalization icon” and one of the first Internet solidary networks with email listservs and websites like Ya Basta! hosted by Swarthmore College with millions of viewers. The campaign is framed for foreign supporters, cultivating contacts with foreign journalists and creating spectacle such as a masked Marcos with a pipe in his mouth seated on a white horse, plus conferences/encounters and freedom schools (including videoconferencing) of interest to media. Marcos/Galeano acknowledged he was doing myth making, constructing a character or hologram, a “colorful ruse” no longer needed as of May 2014. The author of The Marketing of Rebellion said that the Zapatistas wouldn’t have gained international support without Marcos’ command of Spanish and English and his ability “to translate both worlds to one another.” They were able to create themselves as “avatars of popular resistance against the juggernaut of neoliberalism.”
 Clifford Bob. The Marketing of Rebellion: Insurgents, Media, and International Activism. Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 132-133.
 Clifford Bob. The Marketing of Rebellion: Insurgents, Media, and International Activism. Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 162, p. 180.
An Argentinean activist explained that the Zapatistas taught them how to build a new world, not through changing governments, but “through autonomy, self-management, and alternative communication, using globalization in reverse.”[i] A Chilean student from a revolutionary collective, Daniele Carrasco said, “The great example that we have taken from the Zapatista movement is the assembly as a form of organization,” rather than relying on their leaders who in the past negotiated away too much with the state.[ii] They vote on all decisions with a show of hands. Revolution is a long gradual process rather than an event; a widely quoted statement from Marcos is, “We walk, we do not run, because we are going very far.”
[i]Tomás Astelarra, “Piqueteros: the Revolution Without Face or Time,” ROAR Magazine, January 3, 2014.