Category Archives: Gen Z

“Girls and Sex” by Peggy Orenstein reports double standard

Peggy Orenstein has written about US girls for decades. She interviewed over 70 girls ages 15 to 20 for her book Girls and Sex (2017). Many told her they wanted to lose their virginity before going to college and often their first experience of intercourse in “hook-up culture” was alcohol-fueled with a boy who wasn’t a close friend. The girls said that being a slut and a prude are both negatives. However, incidence of teen intercourse is down while engaging in alternatives like oral sex has increased at younger ages. Many of the oral sex encounters are one-way in that the girl services the boy without reciprocation. Girls taught supposed to be sexy to please boys, without emphasis on their own pleasure. College women were likely to tell Orenstein they were satisfied if their partner was happy. Orenstein found that US fathers tend to not discuss sex with their daughters (except at “purity balls” where girls in white are escorted by their tux-wearing fathers as they pledge abstinence until marriage), while their mothers emphasize being safe, and responsible. In contrast Dutch mothers emphasize girls’ rights to assert their desires and limits in mutual sexual pleasure.

Plse critique book ms. on how global youth values will change our future

I invite you to critique and add your observations to chapters of interest.

 Global Youth Values Will Transform Our Future

Gayle Kimball, Ph.D.

Over 4,000 young people from 88 countries SpeakOut! Future leaders reveal trends in youth culture. Discover the values and religious beliefs of Generations Y and Z, based on their own voices rather than adult projections from multiple-choice surveys. The book includes futurists’ projections of significant trends. Please email for chapters to gkimball at csuchico dot edu

Chapter 1: A Global Generation

Get to Know Eva, Abel, Sahar and Yuan; Global Youth Worldview; Trends Shaping Our Futur

Chapter 2 Generation Gap

Teenaging of Culture vs. War on Kids; Generation Gap; Generation We or Me?; Helicopter Parents Want School Success; What Youth Think About Adult

Chapter 3 Modern Values

Morally Lax?; Modern Cultural Creatives; Generational Differences in Values; Individualism vs. Collective Values; Respect for Elders is a Common Value but is Diminishing; Burdened Youth Value Education, Service and Career

Chapter 4 Traditional Values

Critics of Modern Values and Stress; Traditional Rural vs. Modern Urban Values; Traditional Values in First Generation Immigrant Youth; Youth Are Becoming More Family-Focused

Chapter 5 Religious Beliefs

Religious Beliefs; Participation in Organized Religions


Photo book underway to answer kids’ deep questions

I’m starting on a book to answer kids’ deep questions with photographs. Please email me to get the photos to answer what is God, what happens after death, if there is one God, why so many religions? Please also send your kids’ questions to add to the book and how the child would like to be quoted. Many thanks! gkimball at csuchico dot edu

Why are teen girls becoming more depressed?

Pew Research Center focus groups with adolescents ages 12 to 18 revealed that many teens feel overwhelmed by the pressure to present a perfect image on social media.[i] This pressure seems to be especially difficult for girls, who are more likely than boys to suffer from major episodes of depression, according to a study published in the journal Pediatrics.[ii] The Johns Hopkins University researchers analyzed self-report interviews with more than 172,000 adolescents in the US from 2005 to 2014, finding that more teens were depressed and three-fourths of them were girls (an increase in depressive symptoms from 13% to 17%, compared to boy’s increase from 4.5% to 6%). The authors cite other studies finding a greater increase in depressive symptoms in girls than boys and point to girls’ greater use of texting that makes them vulnerable to cyberbullying, and increases in girls’ self-injury. The researchers reported that about one in 11 teens suffer from a major depressive disorder each year. Although suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents, only 10% of the depressed teens saw a medical professional. For young adults, 18 to 25, the increase in symptoms was less than 1%, to around 10% (females 12%, males 7%). The fact that the increase occurred more in teens than young adults suggests that economic stress isn’t the main cause, but rather the increase in peer pressure from social media is problematic, to which girls are more vulnerable.

Boys have higher rates of depression until mid-puberty when girls are more depressed, a trend that continues through adulthood.[iii] This trend is not based on biology because the pattern doesn’t hold in traditional societies and ones where the traditional female role is highly valued such as Amish, Orthodox Jews, or in some Mediterranean countries, but has to do with gender roles that socialize girls to be affiliational and boys to be achievers. Many boys (including other primate youngsters) grow up playfully insulting and fighting with each other, which makes them less sensitive to criticism. Females are more likely to report symptoms of depression and anxiety and to seek help, partly due to role socialization that boys are supposed to be independent problem-solvers rather than sissies. Hence boys may turn to sports, drugs and alcohol rather to mask their pain rather than admitting weakness to a person.

Other explanations for more likelihood of depression for girls are: they are more likely to be sexually abused, they are expected to be well-behaved in a narrow range—there’s no parallel belief to “boys will be boys,” and have a more external locus of control rather than internal one because they are more protected and controlled. “Tomboy” girls may be tolerated but I don’t hear the use of this term anymore. By age six, girls are less likely than boys to view their gender as “really, really smart,” while boys were less likely to say their gender gets top grades in school—girls do tend to get better grades.[iv] Boys are taught to have more self-esteem, called on more by teachers, and allowed to monologue in class. A 20-year study found that boys in elementary and middle school received eight times more teacher attention than girls, discussed in the AAUM Report How Schools Shortchange Girls (2013).[v] A British educator, Mary Bousted, reported it’s “dangerous for girls to be assertive, speak confidently, take up class talk time or defend their opinions” because they can become targets of abuse from classmates.[vi] Feeling helpless is linked to anxiety and depression. As teens, girls are more judged on how they look than boys, are more likely to suffer from cyberbullying, and to care about the reaction to their posts on social media sites like Instagram. This may be due to their socialization to be attractive and judged by what boys like them. Assertive girl “brains” may not get asked out on dates as some boys want to feel superior, due to their socialization to compete and win. It looks like girls still need assertiveness training and be taught to have an internal locus of control rather than being so reactive to their peers’ judgments.

[i] Patti Neighmond, “Depression Strikes Today’s Teen Girls Especially Hard,” NPR, February 13, 2017.

[ii] Ramin Mojtabai, Mark Olson, Beth Han, “National Trends in the Prevalence and Treatment of Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults,” Pediatrics, November 2016.

[iii] Marco Piccinelli and Greg Wilkinson, “Gender Differences in Depression,” British Journal of Psychiatry, Dec 2000, 177 (6) 486-492; DOI: 10.1192/bjp.177.6.486

[iv] David Miller, “Stereotypes Can Hold Boys Back in School, Too,” The Conversation, February 1, 2017.


David Sortino, “When Boys Get More Classroom Attention than Girls,” Press Democrat, December 13, 2012.

[vi] Graeme Paton, “Teachers ‘Should Stop Rowdy Boys Dominating Lessons,’” The Telegraph, September 13, 2013.

guide to academic success available

Your Mindful Guide to Academic Success: Beat Burnout

 Gayle Kimball, Ph.D.

ISBN 978-0-938795-50-6   200 pages

Available on Amazon $9.99



This book is a very useful tool for students to be able to handle their independence as a student in college with so many incredible ideas and ways to help them develop into strong individuals. Dr. Kimball has constructed a comprehensive guide that can be just as effective for the first year experience as it can be for seniors preparing to graduate and embark on their professional journey. She supports the holistic individual – emotionally, physically, and socially. Roderica Williams, Ph.D.


The nine chapters provide information for high school and college students about how to achieve academic goals and reduce stress:

How to identify your learning styles

Techniques to achieve your goals

Study skills and effective test taking

How to write research papers

Stress reduction

Understand mind power

Clearing emotional blocks to success

Physical vitality

Student activism and goals internationally

Student experiences are featured, along with a variety of experts, and they created the illustrations.


Traveling around the world, interviewing young people for my series of books about global youth viewpoints and activism, I heard how much time, worry and anxiety goes into studying for tests. I have a lot of experience studying and test-taking to earn my bachelor’s degree, teaching credential, two Masters Degrees, and Ph.D.—all from the University of California. I’ve corrected thousands of student essays teaching in high school and then in university for decades. I want to share with students what I’ve learned about how to succeed academically, stay centered and have time to enjoy life. I include the advice and experience of young people from various countries to discover how they succeed and to provide insight into the global youth culture in an increasingly globalized world. As a Pakistani young man said in this book, “It lets the students know that their worries/guilt are uniform and students from other regions are facing the same problems.” Although it’s rare, I advocate that the voices of actual young people should be included in books about and for them


Table of Contents  

Chapter 1 How to Achieve Your Goals with Metacognition

Understanding Your Learning Styles

Making Your Brain Work for You

Coping with Learning Disabilities

Identifying Your Personality Types


Chapter 2 Study Skills

Reading, Note Taking, Memorizing, Study Groups

Test Taking Skills suggestions by Dr. Stephen Tchudi

Effective Oral Reports

Overcoming Math Anxiety

Time Management vs. Procrastination


Chapter 3 How to do Research by Morgan Brynnan, MLIS

Information Literacy

Is it all CRAAP – Evaluating Sources

Research Basics

Plagiarism, Ethics and Citation


Chapter 4 Coping with Stress

The Physiology and Causes of Stress

How to Cope with Stress


Balance the Left and Right Sides of the Body


Chapter 5 Understand Mind Power

Research on Mind Over Matter

Positive Self-Talk

How to Clear Emotional Blocks


Chapter 6 Emotional Issues that influence School Success

The Power of the Unconscious Mind


Being a Student of Color in a PWI



Anxiety and Depression




Chapter 7 Physical Vitality

Healthy Food

Prevent Eyestrain


Increase Energy

Enough Sleep


Chapter 8 Getting into College, Career Planning

Getting Into College

Adjusting to College

Post-College Career Planning


Chapter 9 Student Activism in the US and International Education Reform

What Students Want from their Education

The Finish Model

Student Educational Activism

Youth Activism in the US


New Book on Academic Success, illustrated by students


Please look at the photo album of student art illustrating educational themes on Facebook page Test Success. Some are used in my new book “Your Mindful Guide to Academic Success: Beat Burnout.” Available soon on Amazon and other ebook platforms for $10. 185 pages with student suggestions as well as illustrations for each chapter. Includes the experiences of students internationally for a global viewpoint.
ISBN 978-0-938795-50-6

Test Success: How to Cope with Stress and Anxiety