who are US Millennials?

Millennials, born between 1980 and around 2000, are the largest, best educated, and most diverse generation in US history—about 42% are people of color.[i] About 61% of adult Millennials attended college and more of their generation are completing their degrees, burdened by over $1 trillion in student loan debt. However, college graduates earn more than workers with only high school diplomas. Many of them believe what makes their generation unique is their connection to technology and at least three-quarters of them have a social media account. They value creativity and doing good on the job: This ties in to the desire of many of them to become entrepreneurs. An altruistic generation, they are more likely than older generations to say they want to make a contribution to society and they feel a strong connection to family, partly because their parents spent more time with them than older generations.

[i] All facts in this paragraph are from this report. “15 Economic Facts About Millennials,” The Council of Economic Advisors, October 2014.


youth self-esteem in different cultures

Self-esteem is different culturally.[i] For example, in some studies North American young people had higher scores than Chinese and Japanese students, and students in the UK had higher scores than students in Nigeria. Another study found that self-esteem is more associated with life satisfaction and well-being in individualistic cultures like the US than in collectivist ones like China and Korea. Low self-esteem in adolescents is associated with external locus of control, higher depression rates, and lower academic achievement, High self-esteem is linked to parental warmth and acceptance both in some Western countries and China and Japan. A study of 11th graders in the US, Czech Republic, China and Korea found higher self-image in the US and China with less depression than in Czech Republic and Korea, indicating the degree of individualism wasn’t influential, while parental influence is important. Boys had slightly higher self-esteem scores, but not to the point of statistical significance. For all four countries, students with more educated parents had higher self-esteem.

[i] Susan Farruggia, et al., “Adolescent Self-Esteem in Cross-Cultural Perpective Testing Measurement equivalence and a Mediation Model,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, November 2004.

DOI: 10.1177/0022022104270114


Title for book on how global youth will change our future

How Global Youth Values Will Change Our Future
How Global Youth Ideas Will Change Our Future
please let me know which title you like best, or an alternative.

Here’s the TOC:
Chapter 1: A Global Generation
Get to Know Eva, Abel, Sahar and Yuan; Global Youth Worldview; Tends Shaping Our Future

Chapter 2 Generation Gap
Teenaging of Culture vs. War on Kids; Generation Gap; Generation We or Me?; Helicopter Parents Want School Success; What Youths Think About Adults

Chapter 3 Modern Values
Morally Lax?; Modern Cultural Creatives; Generational Differences in Values; Individualism vs. Collective Values; Respect for Elders is a Common Value but is Diminishing; Youth Value Education, Service and Career But Feel Burdened

Chapter 4 Traditional Values
Critics of Modern Values and Stress; Traditional Rural vs. Modern Urban Values; Traditional Values in First Generation Immigrant Youths; Youth Are Becoming More Family-Focused

Chapter 5 Religious Beliefs
Religious Beliefs; Participation in Organized Religions

Why are teen girls becoming more depressed?

Pew Research Center focus groups with adolescents ages 12 to 18 revealed that many teens feel overwhelmed by the pressure to present a perfect image on social media.[i] This pressure seems to be especially difficult for girls, who are more likely than boys to suffer from major episodes of depression, according to a study published in the journal Pediatrics.[ii] The Johns Hopkins University researchers analyzed self-report interviews with more than 172,000 adolescents in the US from 2005 to 2014, finding that more teens were depressed and three-fourths of them were girls (an increase in depressive symptoms from 13% to 17%, compared to boy’s increase from 4.5% to 6%). The authors cite other studies finding a greater increase in depressive symptoms in girls than boys and point to girls’ greater use of texting that makes them vulnerable to cyberbullying, and increases in girls’ self-injury. The researchers reported that about one in 11 teens suffer from a major depressive disorder each year. Although suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents, only 10% of the depressed teens saw a medical professional. For young adults, 18 to 25, the increase in symptoms was less than 1%, to around 10% (females 12%, males 7%). The fact that the increase occurred more in teens than young adults suggests that economic stress isn’t the main cause, but rather the increase in peer pressure from social media is problematic, to which girls are more vulnerable.

Boys have higher rates of depression until mid-puberty when girls are more depressed, a trend that continues through adulthood.[iii] This trend is not based on biology because the pattern doesn’t hold in traditional societies and ones where the traditional female role is highly valued such as Amish, Orthodox Jews, or in some Mediterranean countries, but has to do with gender roles that socialize girls to be affiliational and boys to be achievers. Many boys (including other primate youngsters) grow up playfully insulting and fighting with each other, which makes them less sensitive to criticism. Females are more likely to report symptoms of depression and anxiety and to seek help, partly due to role socialization that boys are supposed to be independent problem-solvers rather than sissies. Hence boys may turn to sports, drugs and alcohol rather to mask their pain rather than admitting weakness to a person.

Other explanations for more likelihood of depression for girls are: they are more likely to be sexually abused, they are expected to be well-behaved in a narrow range—there’s no parallel belief to “boys will be boys,” and have a more external locus of control rather than internal one because they are more protected and controlled. “Tomboy” girls may be tolerated but I don’t hear the use of this term anymore. By age six, girls are less likely than boys to view their gender as “really, really smart,” while boys were less likely to say their gender gets top grades in school—girls do tend to get better grades.[iv] Boys are taught to have more self-esteem, called on more by teachers, and allowed to monologue in class. A 20-year study found that boys in elementary and middle school received eight times more teacher attention than girls, discussed in the AAUM Report How Schools Shortchange Girls (2013).[v] A British educator, Mary Bousted, reported it’s “dangerous for girls to be assertive, speak confidently, take up class talk time or defend their opinions” because they can become targets of abuse from classmates.[vi] Feeling helpless is linked to anxiety and depression. As teens, girls are more judged on how they look than boys, are more likely to suffer from cyberbullying, and to care about the reaction to their posts on social media sites like Instagram. This may be due to their socialization to be attractive and judged by what boys like them. Assertive girl “brains” may not get asked out on dates as some boys want to feel superior, due to their socialization to compete and win. It looks like girls still need assertiveness training and be taught to have an internal locus of control rather than being so reactive to their peers’ judgments.

[i] Patti Neighmond, “Depression Strikes Today’s Teen Girls Especially Hard,” NPR, February 13, 2017.


[ii] Ramin Mojtabai, Mark Olson, Beth Han, “National Trends in the Prevalence and Treatment of Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults,” Pediatrics, November 2016.


[iii] Marco Piccinelli and Greg Wilkinson, “Gender Differences in Depression,” British Journal of Psychiatry, Dec 2000, 177 (6) 486-492; DOI: 10.1192/bjp.177.6.486


[iv] David Miller, “Stereotypes Can Hold Boys Back in School, Too,” The Conversation, February 1, 2017.


[v] http://www.aauw.org/files/2013/02/how-schools-shortchange-girls-executive-summary.pdf

David Sortino, “When Boys Get More Classroom Attention than Girls,” Press Democrat, December 13, 2012.


[vi] Graeme Paton, “Teachers ‘Should Stop Rowdy Boys Dominating Lessons,’” The Telegraph, September 13, 2013.


College Financial Aid Suggestions

Financial aid advisor Maria Olson provides these suggestions about getting financial aid faor college.
Students should know to look up the Cost of Attendance (COA) for each school they are considering.
First Generation college students do need a lot of support and they should explore grant-funded programs like EOP, TRiO, ETS and Upward Bound.
In California, students who have DACA, or are otherwise undocumented have the CADAA (CA Dream Act Application) available for them to apply for state financial aid. Students in these categories are not eligible for Federal Financial Aid, unfortunately, so they would not submit a FAFSA.
There is also a separate application in CA for Foster Youth. They would fill this out in addition to the FAFSA or the CADAA.
Students who are eligible to fill out the FAFSA do not need to also apply for CA state aid. FAFSA sends their info to CSAC (the CA Student Aid Commission) for applying for state aid as well as federal. Other states may do this too, but I only know this is the case in CA.
Students can check the status of their Cal Grant awards, or eligibility, by creating their own student account through: https://mygrantinfo.csac.ca.gov/
Also in California, high school students can take advantage of financial aid workshops put on in conjunction with their high schools, CSAC, and local colleges and universities. These workshops are called Cash for College and we just finished our last events for the season. We helps students and parents fill out the FAFSA and CADAA applications, and answer questions.
Our website is also a wealth of information for explaining types of grants and for scholarship search tips:
http://www.csuchico.edu/fa/index.shtml. Students and parents should peruse the Financial Aid website of each school they are planning to apply to. This is a great way to do research to come up with informed questions prior to calling or making an appointment in person.

guide to academic success available

Your Mindful Guide to Academic Success: Beat Burnout

 Gayle Kimball, Ph.D.

ISBN 978-0-938795-50-6   200 pages

Available on Amazon $9.99



This book is a very useful tool for students to be able to handle their independence as a student in college with so many incredible ideas and ways to help them develop into strong individuals. Dr. Kimball has constructed a comprehensive guide that can be just as effective for the first year experience as it can be for seniors preparing to graduate and embark on their professional journey. She supports the holistic individual – emotionally, physically, and socially. Roderica Williams, Ph.D.


The nine chapters provide information for high school and college students about how to achieve academic goals and reduce stress:

How to identify your learning styles

Techniques to achieve your goals

Study skills and effective test taking

How to write research papers

Stress reduction

Understand mind power

Clearing emotional blocks to success

Physical vitality

Student activism and goals internationally

Student experiences are featured, along with a variety of experts, and they created the illustrations.


Traveling around the world, interviewing young people for my series of books about global youth viewpoints and activism, I heard how much time, worry and anxiety goes into studying for tests. I have a lot of experience studying and test-taking to earn my bachelor’s degree, teaching credential, two Masters Degrees, and Ph.D.—all from the University of California. I’ve corrected thousands of student essays teaching in high school and then in university for decades. I want to share with students what I’ve learned about how to succeed academically, stay centered and have time to enjoy life. I include the advice and experience of young people from various countries to discover how they succeed and to provide insight into the global youth culture in an increasingly globalized world. As a Pakistani young man said in this book, “It lets the students know that their worries/guilt are uniform and students from other regions are facing the same problems.” Although it’s rare, I advocate that the voices of actual young people should be included in books about and for them


Table of Contents  

Chapter 1 How to Achieve Your Goals with Metacognition

Understanding Your Learning Styles

Making Your Brain Work for You

Coping with Learning Disabilities

Identifying Your Personality Types


Chapter 2 Study Skills

Reading, Note Taking, Memorizing, Study Groups

Test Taking Skills suggestions by Dr. Stephen Tchudi

Effective Oral Reports

Overcoming Math Anxiety

Time Management vs. Procrastination


Chapter 3 How to do Research by Morgan Brynnan, MLIS

Information Literacy

Is it all CRAAP – Evaluating Sources

Research Basics

Plagiarism, Ethics and Citation


Chapter 4 Coping with Stress

The Physiology and Causes of Stress

How to Cope with Stress


Balance the Left and Right Sides of the Body


Chapter 5 Understand Mind Power

Research on Mind Over Matter

Positive Self-Talk

How to Clear Emotional Blocks


Chapter 6 Emotional Issues that influence School Success

The Power of the Unconscious Mind


Being a Student of Color in a PWI



Anxiety and Depression




Chapter 7 Physical Vitality

Healthy Food

Prevent Eyestrain


Increase Energy

Enough Sleep


Chapter 8 Getting into College, Career Planning

Getting Into College

Adjusting to College

Post-College Career Planning


Chapter 9 Student Activism in the US and International Education Reform

What Students Want from their Education

The Finish Model

Student Educational Activism

Youth Activism in the US